Top 6 Skills Required to become Full Stack Developer

Table of Contents

What does a Full Stack Developer do?

What is Front-end Development?
What is Back-end Development?

Skills every Full Stack Developer needs


Do you want to become a basic Full Stack Developer? Or do you want to become a great Full Stack Developer? There is a fine line between the two. And that line is determined by the kind of skills you possess.

In today’s blog, we’re going to discuss the skills required for Full Stack Developers to succeed. But first let’s try to answer the most basic question – “what is a Full Stack Developer?”

What does a Full Stack Developer do?

What does a Full Stack Developer do?

In simple words, a Full Stack Developer is a person responsible for the Front-end, Back-end and/or Databases of a web application.

But what do these terms mean?

What is Front-end Development?

Also known as client side development, Front-end development focuses on the side of the application that users actually interact with. Front-end developers check the app for usability and ensure browser compatibility of the application or website. For example, if you’re working on a website, you’ll realise that simply having content is not enough. You need various additional sections, like “Contact us” or “Homepage”. A Front-end developer thinks all these things through.

What is Back-end development?

Back-end Development – you guessed it – is mostly behind the scenes. Back-end developers work with the server side of the application. They tie the databases, servers and applications into one well functioning unit. Back-end development provides the foundation for client-side development. Going back to the example of the website. In the “Contact us” section the Front-end developer has added a form for clients to fill. Then the Back-end developer’s job is to ensure that whatever information is added to the form, by the client, is actually getting stored on the company’s server.

A Full-stack developer is expected to juggle both front-end and back-end development of an application. They need to possess complete knowledge in multiple coding languages, frameworks, servers, networks and hosting environments.

A fresher with a diverse Full Stack developer skill set can not only work with the application, but can also consult and strategise on the end-product. To get a little more in depth, these are the activities that a knowledgeable Full Stack developer is likely to do on a daily basis:

  • Assisting with software development and design 
  • Software testing and bug fixing to keep it optimised 
  • Writing clean code for the front and back end of the software 
  • Designing user interfaces for the actual web application 
  • Constructing servers and databases for the software’s back end 
  • Improving and ensuring cross-platform compatibility 
  • Application responsiveness testing and maintenance 
  • Collaborating with graphic artists to create new features 
  • Adapting to technical developments to improve their software
  • Educating decision-makers on the benefits of developing technology 
  • Taking into account security, upkeep, scalability, and other factors when building the application

Now that we know what makes a Full Stack developer, let’s understand what are a Full Stack developer’s skills?

What makes for great Full Stack Developer Skills?

What makes for great Full Stack Developer Skills?

As you can see, being a Full Stack developer is no walk in the park. It calls for a diverse set of Full Stack web developer skills ranging from User Perspective to Coding.

Some of the technical skills a Full Stack Developer must have include:


HTML stands for HyperText Mark-up Language and is used in client-side or the Front-end development by Full Stack developers. HTML is used to format text and visual elements on the application. On the other hand, CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is used to add style and design elements to the application. Let’s simplify this with an example. Let’s say you are tasked with designing the human body, then in that case HTML will tell the program where the hands will go, where the nose will go etc. And CSS will help style and beautify the whole body.


Javascript is a text-based programming language that allows you to make your applications interactive. Due to its dynamic nature, it is used in both front-end as well as back-end development. One of the most common examples how Javascript can make static pages interactive, is the clickable search bar present on websites like Amazon. In Back-end development, Javascript is used for its various libraries and frameworks.

Git and GitHub

Famous among amateurs as well as seasoned Web developers, Git is used in Back-end development as a control system. Using this platform, developers can track coding changes and collaborate on one project with multiple developers. GitHub, is a cloud based platform where developers host their Git projects.

Back-end Languages

As a Full-stack developer you will be required to know a few Back-end languages like, Python, Java, PHP and Ruby. These languages craft the actual functionality of the application. The more languages you know, the more proficient you will be as a developer.

Web architecture

Web Architecture is the process of designing an architectural layout of how all the involved software will interact with one another. It helps us understand how all the different components in the network work together. And defines how the data will get transferred through HTTP, and that this is understood by the client and server side of the application.

Database Management Systems

For the smooth running of any application, there needs to be an even smoother Database Management System. As the name suggests, these manage Databases. A DBMS serves as an interface between data and the developer. It allows you to create, read, update and delete data stored in the databases.

Final Thoughts

Final Thoughts

Full Stack Development is a robust and exciting field that calls for a diverse range of skills. You have to quite literally do it all as a Full Stack developer, which is also what makes Full Stack developers irreplaceable to their organisations. It also explains why these highly skilled individuals are in so much demand!

Wondering how to be a Full Stack Developer? You can check out our Full Stack Development course. Designed for beginners, this course covers all the concepts and skills required to become a Full Stack developer. From HTML and CSS to Database Management and more! If you found this article helpful and were able to understand what a Full Stack developer’s skills are, drop us a comment!

Learning Python for Data Science and It’s Uses

Data Science has become vital for most industries to drive their growth ahead. From making better business decisions to predicting the outcome of certain financial or marketing choices, Data Science is used extensively by companies. But Data Scientists do not do this alone. They are armed with a plethora of tools to make these accurate predictions. And among those several tools, you will find that most Data Scientists make use of one tool extensively –


Why is Python programming favoured? How do companies use Python in Data Science? How can you jump on this bandwagon? Read the article to answer these questions.

– Why should you learn Python for Data Science?

Why should you learn Python for Data Science?

As you know Python wasn’t the first programming language for Data Science that was preferred. For years scientists used a variety of different programming languages from Fortran to C++ and Java, and don’t get us wrong – these languages are still very much in use. 

So why should you learn Python as a Data Scientist? 

There are several reasons we could give you like, for example, Python’s Flexibility – Python allows you to explore and experiment creatively. Since Python is run free of templates or specific APIs, it is suitable for the development of any kind of application or website. 

Python is also known for its Simplicity. Since its syntax is relatively similar to English, it is very easy to understand and pick up for beginners. Data Scientists will find this especially useful, since most of them come from a statistical or mathematical background and are not that familiar with coding. 

While we are on the subject of Python’s attributes, we have to mention the large community of Python users. This is good news for any fresher, as they’ll have innumerable resources at their disposal. From online tutorials and books to conferences like PyCon, Python has created a large and welcoming community, with help available around every corner.

Finally, possibly the biggest advantage of using Python is the availability of numerous libraries.

A library in Python is a bunch of precompiled code that can be used for certain pre-decided purposes. So code for commonly occurring tasks, like data cleaning and data analysing, does not have to be written from scratch. You can just pick up these codes from libraries of Data Science using Python:

  • NumPy – A library that helps with large mathematical tasks
  • Pandas – One of the easiest libraries to use; it assists with data cleaning and analysing
  • Matplotlib – This Python library for Data Science is used in data visualisation tasks and helps to make dynamic scatterplots, line graphs and more 
  • Spicy – This library helps with scientific computing like linear algebra and other statistical tasks

There are a lot more libraries in Python that you could experiment with to simplify the coding process. But in order to fully utilise Python’s capabilities, you first need to master it.

Must-learn Python Basics for Data Science

Must-learn Python Basics for Data Science

Now that you know why you should learn Python programming for Data Science, let’s kickstart your learning journey by understanding this detailed roadmap.

Step 1: Python Fundamentals

You want to start by understanding the Python basics first, libraries and data structures. Since Python’s syntax is similar to English, it shouldn’t be too hard to pick up the language.

Step 2: Regular Expressions

Once you grasp the basics of the language, take your learning up a notch and learn about Regular Expressions. RegEx is a sequence of characters that form a search pattern. RegEx is handy when you work with a lot of text, since they make filters more specialised and tailored to your needs.

Step 3: Libraries

Now that you’re fluent in the language and confident in your skill, move on to learning how to use the vast number of Libraries Python hosts. Start with NumPy and pay close attention to learning NumPy arrays, this will set up a solid base for you.

Step 4: Data Visualisation

Data Science as a field requires a lot of data visualisation, so that is one skill you should keep in mind while learning Python. There are several libraries for Data Science you can master for this; Matplotlib, Seaborn, Plotly are some of the commonly known ones.

Step 5: Projects

Alongside your learning, keep a portfolio of projects ready. These will provide credible, quantifiable proof of the things you have learnt and your expertise in the field. You can add the following projects to your portfolio:

Data Cleaning project

You would be surprised by how much raw data you can find on the internet. You can download this data and practice filtering it.

Data Visualisation Project

Data that is unreadable is of no use. Which is why making striking visuals is an important skill to possess. If your portfolio contains great-looking and comprehensible visualisations it will stand out.

Machine Learning

As a Data Scientist, you will work extensively with machine learning. It is basically the core requirement for being a Data Scientist. Working with different algorithms will give you an edge over your peers.

To delve deeper into Python for Data Science, let’s look at all the possible ways it can be used by a Data Scientist.

Applications of Data Science using Python

Applications of Data Science using Python

Data Science and Data Analytics have slowly started to make their presence known amongst almost every industry today. Be it Healthcare, Oil or Retail, these skills are used to gain valuable insights to make better marketing and business decisions. 

Data is collected and refined into logical conclusions and strategies. There are many

tools available out there for data analysis. However most companies favour Python as it supports Object-Oriented Programming, Structured Programming as well as Functional Programming. 

So what is Python used for?

  • Libraries like Pandas or NumPy help process large volumes of unfiltered data.
  • Sometimes data has to be scraped from the internet and is not readily available, so tools like Python Scrapy or Beautiful Soup can help with that. 
  • Next you need to make graphical representations of the data, no big deal – just use libraries like Matplotlib or Seaborn to make comprehensible graphs and visualisations.
  • Lastly, comes Machine Learning. ML is filled with complicated computational techniques, but Python is well equipped with Scikit-Learn for data classification, regression, clustering and more. 

Data analysis can also be performed using Python when it comes to data presented in images. It has a great open-source library called Opencv that deals exclusively with images.



By now you should’ve familiarised yourself with all the tools and attributes of Python for Data Science. We spoke time and again about how easy Data Science with Python is to learn. However, Data Science on its own is a complicated field that students need thorough guidance for.

If you want to kickstart your journey in Data Science, upGrad Campus offers a holistic Data Science and Analytics course. One of the many things you will learn in this course is Python programming from scratch with specific use cases in Data Science. Our course also gives you the chance to build an impressive portfolio with multiple projects spanning from data cleaning and data manipulation to data visualisation.

If you found this blog helpful, leave a comment below and let us know which topics you’d like us to cover next.

Guide On Strengths and Weaknesses To Crack Your Job Interviews

Almost every interview you sit for is going to eventually lead you to discuss your strengths and weaknesses. There is simply no way out of this situation, and like with any other question, you get to put your greatest strengths in the limelight and get to show how much you are willing to grow with your weaknesses.

Everybody has strengths and weaknesses we know about ourselves, but not all those are interview appropriate. The key to answering questions of this kind is balance.

Read this blog to learn how to answer this question, why you are asked about your strength and weaknesses in job interviews and what are some strengths and weaknesses examples you can give when posed with this question.

Before we jump to this question, let’s first understand how to answer and ace interview questions as a whole.

Scripting – the key to self-introduction for interviews

Scripting - the key to self-introduction for interview

This may come as a surprise for some of you, and we bet y’all are wondering should we be scripting our answers?

And the answer to this question is a resounding YES!

By scripting we mean, preparing or pre-writing an interview answer. You absolutely should be scripting answers to standard questions for your interviews beforehand. And the question “what are your strengths and weaknesses” are as standard as they come. In fact, answers to any question that will provide an introduction to yourself to the interviewer should be scripted prior to the interview.

What we don’t recommend however is trying to memorise these scripted answers word-for-word. This will just lead you to sound rehearsed when instead you want to sound candid – one of the most common mistakes freshers make during their interview. Scripting your answers beforehand will help you organise your thoughts beforehand. It will give you a rough flow of points from start to finish, so that you can tie up the end of your answer neatly and not end it haphazardly.

So how do you script answers better? These are our top tips:

  1. Prepare a list of the most frequently asked questions in the field you’re applying to. And script answers for those select few questions, since they have a higher chance of being asked.
  2. Once you script your answer, practise them out loud to see how naturally they’re flowing for you. And go back and make any changes required to the answer.
  3. As we mentioned above DO NOT memorise these answers, this will throw you off if the answers you memorised are not asked.
  4. In order to check how you sound, you could also record your answers and go back and check how well your answers are flowing.
  5. When it comes to the actual interview, just make up an answer as you go – based on the main points of the answer you scripted.
  6. If you want to go a step further you can also schedule a mock HR interview with an interview coach. This way you’ll be much more comfortable answering questions in a foreign environment.

Now that we understand how to script better answers, let’s go back to addressing your strengths and weaknesses in an interview.

Interviewer’s favourite – What are your strengths and weaknesses?

Interviewer's favourite - What are your strengths and weaknesses?

The topic of strengths and weaknesses may seem daunting to most and it certainly is tricky to talk about them. However interviewers ask about your strengths and weaknesses often to evaluate a few things about you:

  • How well do you know yourself
  • Based on your answer, whether you’re fit for the team
  • Whether or not you assess yourself
  • What your approach is, to make up for your weaknesses
  • What new skills and traits will you bring to the team

As you can see there is a lot you have to keep in mind when you answer the question – “What are your strengths and weaknesses?”

How to answer – What are your strengths?

How to answer - What are your strengths?

To answer this question, it is important to put yourself in the shoes of the interviewer. What strengths do you think the interviewer is looking for? You will get a general idea of this by reading the description of the job role you’re applying for. Depending on what you come up with, you can then align your strengths to match their expectations.

For example, if you’re looking to apply for the role of Product Manager, organisational ability is a skill you’d like to showcase.

When you answer this question, be confident. This is your chance to highlight positive traits. However, refrain from bragging about how good you are at xyz tasks. It’s never a good look and unless your interviewer is equally pompous, they are least likely to get impressed. Instead be straightforward and humble, talk about strengths and provide scenarios where you used them.

A sample response for this question would look like this:

“One of my greatest strengths is my organisational skill. I learned this through [story of how you developed this], and this allowed me to [example of what you achieved using this strength] at my current/previous job/experience.”

As you can see this format is a bit direct and straightforward, however it gives you the leeway to add a personal touch in the form of a story or an experience. You should always follow up your strengths with an example of a situation where you put them to use and what the resulting outcome was.

If you’re having a hard time pointing out your strengths, we’ve put together a list of possible strengths, and you can pick one or two (we’re generous like that) and elaborate on them.

A list of possible soft skills you can use as Strengths:

  • Detail-oriented
  • Accuracy
  • Time Management
  • Good at negotiation
  • Flexible
  • Quick to Adapt
  • Quick study / Fast learner
  • Empathetic
  • Disciplined
  • Excellent at communicating
  • Innovative
  • Creative
  • Problem solver
  • Open to criticism
  • Persuasive
  • Interpersonal skills / a Team player
  • Strong work ethic
  • Leadership

Apart from these soft skills, you should definitely add hard skills or technical skills that are relevant to your field and back it up with some credible work experience like projects, etc.

How to answer – What are your weaknesses?

How to answer - What are your weaknesses?

We all have weaknesses and flaws – just a part of being a human being.

But our ability to recognise these weaknesses and work upon them is what differentiates us from each other. And ultimately this is what recruiters are looking for – how do you overcome your shortcomings.

Similar to your strengths, the key to talking about your weaknesses is combining self-awareness with an action and the resulting outcome.

  • Talk about the weakness – what is it?
  • What you did overcome this weakness – with a story.
  • How did that improve your weakness (result)

It’s important to note that recruiters don’t always ask this question so directly.
Instead they may ask you:

  • If you could change something about yourself what would you change?
  • What does the ideal version of yourself look like?
  • How do you bounce back after mistakes?
  • If your current mentor had to name a weakness of yours, what would they say?

Owning up to your weaknesses is a sign of growth in itself and is more attractive to your hiring managers, rather than saying you have no flaws. So when posed with this question, this should be the outline of your answer:

“During my career I would often struggle with [weakness]. I have come a long way after I did X activity to improve myself. [Follow up with a story of how you managed your weakness.]”

When you script an answer for this question, ensure that you pick a weakness that allows you to demonstrate your growth and your fervour to keep learning from your mistakes

In case you’re stuck coming up with a weakness you can elaborate on, we have a few listed for you. Pick the ones that you can elaborate on with a story of improvement:

  • Self-critical
  • Insecure
  • Disorganised
  • Prone to procrastination
  • Uncomfortable speaking in front of a crowd
  • Uncomfortable with task delegation
  • Risk-averse
  • Competitive
  • Sensitive to criticism
  • Extreme introversion or extroversion
  • Limited experience in a particular skill or software

When you pick a weakness, make sure you pick one where you have shown improvement, so that you can demonstrate your growth to your hiring manager.



Your strengths and weaknesses matter to recruiters, because from these answers they can assess whether or not you are a suitable candidate and whether or not you’ll be a good fit for the team. They also like to see whether or not you’re capable of assessing yourself.

When choosing a strength or weakness, choose one that allows you to elaborate in the form of a story on how you either used that particular strength or overcame your weakness

If you want to learn more about HR interview questions like this, upGrad Campus offers Placement Plus and Internship Plus with all its courses. You can expect complete career guidance, from Resume building to mock HR interviews, making you100% ready for your first job.

Importance and Scope of Digital Marketing for Online Business

Ever wondered what the purpose of those bright flashy posts on Instagram are all about? Why do brands need a social media presence at all? And more importantly why do their marketing strategies work so well (in other words why do I end up spending $$$)?

Well we’ve got two (very straightforward) words for you – Digital Marketing.

What is Digital Marketing?

What is Digital Marketing?

Most of us don’t really need an introduction to digital marketing. We’re either consuming it or we’re the ones making it (or doing both?) But for those few who are probably on a digital hiatus, Digital Marketing is:

The act of promoting a company or its products/services digitally or using technology.

It’s as simple as that. If you use any digital means necessary to promote your products or services, you’re a Digital Marketer.

The significance of Digital Marketing has really kicked off in the last decade, because it helps companies reach a larger audience in a shorter amount of time. Smartphones are basically an extension of our hands at this point, making it the easiest way for brands to reach us.

But Digital Marketing on its own is just an umbrella term for a wide variety of marketing techniques. So what is Digital Marketing made up of?

The Main Types of Digital Marketing

The Main Types of Digital Marketing

Digital Marketing is not simply made up of Social Media posts and Google Ads. Let’s take a look at some prime examples of Digital Marketing:

  1. Search Engine Optimisation

    Also known as SEO, Search Engine Optimisation is very helpful in enhancing the reach and scope of a brand. Let’s say you’re looking to take care of your plants and you search for “Plant care tips” on a search engine like Google or Bing.

    While you’ll get pages and pages of results from different gardening brands, you are most likely to click on the first result. And that’s where all the brands want to be.

    The purpose of SEO is to rank first on the Search Engine Results Page, also known as SERP. The higher your website ranks, the more traffic it is bound to garner. And more traffic means better brand recognition.

    Using specific keywords on your website is one way you can push your webpage higher and make it more relevant. Backlinks, meta data, etc. are some of the other ways. It is important to keep in mind that SEO is a wholly organic process. One has to use specific keywords, elements like videos, photos or other hundreds of elements to be favoured by the algorithm of the search engine. You also have to keep up with the latest news and updates on the search engine and how their algorithm affects your ranking.

  2. Content Marketing

    Content Marketing is a marketing strategy used to attract, engage and retain one’s audience by making use of blogs, posts, articles, videos, podcasts etc. This form of marketing promotes brand awareness and shows expertise. In content marketing, the focus is applied to the actual content and using various tools like SEO or social media posts, the content is optimised and broadcasted.

  3. Email Marketing

    Confused? Do you believe that emails are outdated or that people don’t open them? Then we’re afraid you’re very wrong. Email marketing is still very much used and is still very very much effective. We’ll explain why.

    There is absolutely no limit on how many emails you send out, even SMS or messenger apps aren’t able to reach that large an audience, without getting flagged as spam or suspicious. What’s more, SMSs go through a stringent verification and approval process through their respective telecom operators when brands use them for promotions.

    In comparison with Social Media, the audience you can reach is hindered by many factors like the number of followers you have, whether or not the algorithm supports your posts or whether or not you boost (pay the platform to reach more people) your posts, etc.

    Emails are cost-effective, versatile, easy to build and can reach any number of audiences. These benefits make email marketing one of the most important digital marketing channels for brands today.

  4. Pay Per Click

    We know we said we Digital Marketing is more than Google Ads, but this article simply wouldn’t be complete without mentioning the internet’s best friend.

    So, PPC Advertising is a form of advertising where advertisers pay a fee each time their ads are clicked on. Search engine advertising is the most common form of PPC advertising, and the most popular example would be Google ads.

    If you’ve spent enough time on Google search, you would have definitely seen some form of PPC. It’s any search result with the word “Ad” on top of it. Now Google ads run on a pay per click model where brands bid for keywords and Google chooses “winners” from a large number of advertisers based on their campaigns, quality of work and more. Seems complicated? Let’s simplify this.

    Let’s say 3 competitor brands, like Swiggy, Zomato and UberEats want their name to occur first every time a user types “order food online”, and they all bid for this keyword. If Swiggy wins the bid, then Swiggy’s ad will occur first. So every time a user types the keyword and clicks on Swiggy’s sponsored Ad, Swiggy has to pay a fee to the search engine, in this case, Google.

    To put it simply, PPC is a way of buying visits instead of organically driving traffic to your channel.

  5. Affiliate marketing

    How about we use the word influencer instead? Bet you’ll understand this way faster.

    An influencer promotes products or services that aren’t theirs. Influencers are simply third party marketers that promote a company’s products for a fee in return. They usually host websites or blogs or accounts where they review products, post product links or ads about those products. All with the intention to drive traffic to the company’s website.

    Affiliate marketing is usually tied to Pay per click or SEO marketing. Since the influencer’s job is to drive traffic to a particular website or product web page, they get paid for every click made to that website, hence making it PPC. Along with this, they also have to make use of SEO and keywords to drive traffic to their website. At the end of the day, affiliate marketing is a win-win situation, giving customers, influencers and brands exactly what they each need.

These are the most important tools or techniques that people use to market their products, and these are the techniques that make digital marketing as successful as it is.

How is Digital Marketing taking over Traditional Marketing?

How is Digital Marketing taking over Traditional Marketing?

Traditional Marketing involves anything to do with print media, flyers, posters, billboards, newspaper advertisements, radio broadcasts, TVCs, etc.

So the main difference between the two is obviously the medium used. But what benefits of digital marketing is set apart from traditional marketing

  1. The reach

    Traditional Marketing has a lesser reach compared to Digital Marketing. Most forms of Traditional Marketing, such as print ads and hoardings are geographically restricted, limiting their reach. Whereas, digital content, unless specifically targeted, can be made available to audiences worldwide.

  2. The cost

    Printing is unfortunately costly in the long run. While you do need certain equipment to Digitally Market something, that cost comes under your capital and is not a recurring cost like printing would be. This factor allows for many more collaterals to be created under the umbrella of digital marketing branding as opposed to that in traditional branding.

  3. Versatility

    Traditional Marketing can come with a lot of restrictions. For example, consider print media. It is not as versatile, in the sense that on a digital platform you have the option to use videographic elements, you can play around with audio visual themes in a way that is just not possible on print. Versatility could also be about size. Digital media can be made and consumed in any size. Banners and standees have fixed sizes, colour tones, and material restrictions on the other hand. Also, it is possible to make edits, to an extent, digitally. Once something has been printed, it’s impossible to change anything there and the whole campaign can go for a toss.

  4. Interactivity

    A digital campaign can be interactive in nature. With social media providing many responsive capabilities to users, your followers or target audience can reach back to you at any time, via comments, direct messages, phone calls or even on email.

  5. Results

    In print media, there is a lack of real time results, whereas online, you can instantly know whether or not your digital campaign was successful. There is a way to quantify that success, in the form of likes, comments, reposts/ shares, etc.

That said, this is not to diminish the importance of Traditional Advertising, which is important in its own right. However, it’s clear how Digital Marketing benefits brands today.

Why is Digital Marketing Important for the Future?

Why is Digital Marketing Important for the Future?

If the above points aren’t reason enough for you to believe that the benefits of digital media are vital for all businesses in the future, we have a lot more advantages to give you.

Post the pandemic, the merits of e-marketing really paid off and there was a sharp rise in spend overall in Digital Marketing, with an increase of over 22% in budgets from 2020 to 2022. This goes to prove that even the largest and most established companies are restructuring their traditional Advertising budgets and giving Digital Media promotion more focus than before. Apart from the convenience of Digital Marketing and all it’s remote capabilities, these could be the other possible online advertising benefits, making it everyone’s hot pick:

  1. Digital Marketing helps you to effectively target your audience. Even if you don’t have the clearest idea of your target audience, you can use Digital Marketing tools to extract data and see what group of people work best for you, as an audience. You can then best align your marketing strategy with their needs, and going forward you can base all your marketing efforts around them, saving a lot of time and energy.

  2. Further, digital marketing benefits brands and allows them to choose from a wide range of content with ease. Using different content buckets you can build a solid digital media plan to effectively reach your target audience on multiple platforms, with each platform being optimised in different ways. This gives you the freedom to explore and experiment with various digital marketing trends.

  3. As new technologies constantly come into the market, the possibilities with Digital Marketing are just going to increase and people are just going to push the envelope of what is creatively possible. Digital Marketing may have come into the forefront because of the pandemic, however, now that people have started to realise its importance, its presence is only going to dominate the market more.

The Scope of Branding and Digital Marketing as a Career

The Scope of Branding and Digital Marketing as a Career

With the new and improved adaptation of our lives post pandemic, with Digital Marketing at the forefront of most businesses. Companies are now aggressively hiring Digital Marketing experts and freshers to take charge and handle the responsibilities that the profession calls for.

In terms of scope (which there is a lot of), these are the most in demand skills in the field of Digital Marketing

  • Video Production
  • Content Marketing
  • Data Analytics
  • Search Engine Optimization
  • Copywriting
  • Pay per click
  • Graphic Designing

Now that you have a fair idea of what skillsets are prioritised, you can work on them and get jobs in the following positions:

  • Digital Marketing Manager
  • Search Engine Optimizer
  • Social Media Marketer
  • Content Marketer
  • Email Marketer
  • SEM Specialist
  • SEO Specialists for Voice Assistants (Alexa, Siri etc.)
  • Video Producers
  • Data Analyst

Final Thoughts

Final Thoughts

With over 30% of the world’s population (too many zero’s to count) being connected online, reaching them there just makes sense from a brand’s perspective. Adding technology to age old web marketing strategies is the smart route to take for brands that want to stay relevant in the long run. The demand for Digital Marketing makes it a highly competitive field, starting your career earlier itself, in this field, is best. Check out our digital marketing course that is specially curated for freshers and makes use of blended learning for the most effective way to pick up new skills.

If you think this blog was helpful leave us a comment below and stay tuned for more such content.

Happy learning!

What is Cyber Security and Different Types of Cyber Security?

In the last decade, Cyber crime has only increased with innumerous cyber attacks taking place every day on individuals and large corporations alike. Considering the digital age that we live in, it’s important to answer the question – What is Cyber Security and why does it matter?

In the simplest terms, Cyber Security is our internet’s very own army against the malicious cyber threats our systems are constantly subjected to. It is defined as any practice, technology, process or control that defends our electronic devices, programs, systems and networks and the data on these from cyber attacks.

Most people assume cyber attacks don’t affect them in any way, but that’s not true. Cyber crime affects everyone, and it is Cyber Security that is keeping our mobiles, laptops, softwares and networks free of hackers and other cyber criminals.

Why is Cyber Security Important?

Why is Cyber Security Important?

Cyber Security safeguards all kinds of information from theft and misuse. This includes sensitive information, personal details of individuals, medical records, intellectual property along with highly confidential government and industry related data. There is nothing stopping cyber criminals from targeting you, so throw out the notion that cyber crime does not concern you or isn’t a big deal for an individual entity. Without any kind of precaution, your information or your company would be completely at the mercy of cyber threats and cyber attacks.

In fact, the need for Cyber Security has increased tenfold as traditional Cyber Security practices like antiviruses and firewalls are no longer effective in holding cyber threats at bay. Since cyber crime can catch you off guard at any point from anywhere, it is important to cover all bases and ensure the highest level of security is maintained for all confidential and sensitive information.

Evolution of Cyber Security

Evolution of Cyber Security

The evolution of Cyber Security has gone hand in hand with the rise of cyber crime. All the way from 1971, when the first virus called the ‘Creeper’ affected systems on Tenex (an operating system). The virus was relatively harmless and displayed the words “I’m the Creeper. Catch me if you can!” across the screens of the affected computers.

The Creeper led the world’s first antivirus to be made, effectively called the ‘Reaper’. The Reaper was a self-replicating version of the Creeper that moved through the net, deleting copies of the Creeper.

There have been innumerable cyber attacks and counter attacks since the 70’s, and we’ve come a long way from the relatively harmless Creeper. A few notable milestones in the history of Cyber Security have been:

  • The inauguration of the Department of Homeland Security in 2002, by then U.S President George W Bush..
  • The passing of the General Data Protection Regulation, in the EU (circa, 2018). This bill gave users more control over their personal data and mandated the protection of such data by the organisations.

In the recent years, Cyber Security specialists, in a bid to to prevent cyber attacks, are focusing their efforts in these two areas:

The Internet of Things (IoT)

Cytelligence recently reported that hackers are more likely to make use of individual mobile devices or IoT devices like Smart Home devices, Smart TV , etc. All it takes is getting access to one of these devices, for the hacker to then infiltrate all the devices connected on that common network. This leads the hacker to gain possession of sensitive data including the victims’ medical records, personal information and bank statements.

Exponential Amounts of Data

The surplus of data flowing through the world concerns Cyber Security specialist and former Secretary of Homeland Security, Michael Chertoff. He claims that storing large amounts of data, especially when the data is confidential, can be an entryway for hackers to take over entire databases, which is why continuous efforts have to be made to safeguard these systems.

Cyber crime has risen far beyond the harmless Creeper and become far more dangerous for the systems as well the users involved in the hack. In fact, cyber crime can now be categorised in several distinct categories, each one with different targets and remedies.

Types of Cyber Threats

Types of Cyber Threats

We can grossly categorise the different types of cyber threats into these 7 sections:

  1. Malware

    As the name suggests, Malware is a malicious software that gains access when a malicious link or attachment is clicked by the host. When activated by the user, the malware can:

    • Block access to the device or account unless certain conditions are met (like a ransome being paid)
    • Obtain confidential information directly from the hard drive (spyware)
    • Install harmful software without the permission of the host
    • Play havoc on individual components of the device, making the whole system unstable
  2. Emotet

    Emotet was a banking trojan that evolved into one the most go-to malwares used to access the user’s private information including bank statements. At one point, it was known as the most costly malwares to affect the world. Emotet was usually transmitted via downloadable links in spam mails. Once the victim clicked the link, the malware would get installed directly.

  3. Denial of services

    A DoS is a type of attack where the computer network is overwhelmed with requests, which eventually leads the targeted computer unable to accept requests. Hackers sometimes use a botnet, which is also known as ‘zombie systems’, that are used to affect millions of computers at the same time.

  4. Man in the Middle

    Man in the Middle (MITM) refers to an attack where the hacker positions themselves in the middle of a conversation between the victim and the computer device. The hacker usually impersonates the system, making the user believe a normal exchange is taking place, and steals the personal information of the user.

  5. Phishing

    Almost all of us have one way or the other fallen for a phishing scam. Phishing attacks usually make use of fake communication (fake emails, messages, phone calls) to deceive the users into carrying out certain instructions (submitting bank details, log in credentials for websites), leading them to access the personal information of the user.

  6. SQL Injection

    SQL stands for Structured Query Language. An SQL injection is a type of cyber attack that infects servers using SQL with malicious code. Once infected the SQL server leaks out information.

  7. Password Attacks

    Most systems are only one password away from being vulnerable to a host of attacks. Social Engineering is a type of attack where the perpetrator causes the victim to break standard protocol and reveal their passwords. In other cases, hackers directly hack into password databases and steal the information of millions of users in one swoop. Apart from this hackers just use plain ol’ guessing. Keep 1234 as a password and it’s just natural selection at this point 😜

    Cyber crime has definitely risen to unimaginable heights in the last decade. However, not all is lost. With the rise of crime, the amount of security has risen too. Let’s take a look at the types of Cyber Security in place that protects our systems from malicious attacks.

What are the three different types of Cyber Security?

What are the three different types of Cyber Security?

Just like cyber crime, Cyber Security too can be broadly categorised into several sections. Let’s look at the 3 most prominent examples.

  1. Database and Infrastructure security

    Database and Infrastructure security is usually implemented for a cyber physical system, which includes everything from computers to water purifying systems and even electrical grids. Since all the networks we use include a physical counterpart, it would make sense to safeguard these first.

  2. Network Security

    Network Security is a set of rules, protocols and techniques made to protect the accessibility and confidentiality of data using both software and hardware technologies.

    There are 3 types of Network Security:

    • Physical Network Security

      stops unwanted access to the physical components part of the network (routers, cable cupboards, etc). Precautions like biometric scanners, physical locks, etc. are implemented as the first layer of security.

    • Technical Network Security

      takes care of all the data and information on the network as well as all the data getting transferred in and out of the network. TechSec makes use of various methods like network authentication management and IT security strategy.

    • Administrative Network Security

      controls user behaviour, including deciding what kind of authentication will be required from the user, the level of control each user has as well as how the IT staff implement changes.

  3. Application Security

    Since the entirety of the Tech world is running on applications, it is critical that we safeguard these softwares from malevolent attacks. Application security uses software and hardware for protection against threats that may appear during the development stage of an application life cycle. Application Security makes use of measures like firewalls, antivirus programs, encryption, etc.

    There are many other types of Cyber Security measures taken (Cloud security, Information security, etc.) that you’ll learn about if you choose to become a Cyber Security specialist.

Careers in Cyber Security

With cyber crime at an all-time high, the demand for Cyber Security professionals has increased exponentially. And with the rising level of crimes also comes never-ending opportunities in this field. Some of the most in demand jobs for freshers in this field are:

  • Cybersecurity Engineer
  • Cybersecurity Analyst
  • Network Engineer
  • Cyber Security Consultant
  • Cybersecurity Manager
  • Systems Engineer
  • Vulnerability Analyst
  • Software Developer
  • Cybersecurity Specialist
  • Ethical Hacker

If any of the above roles interest you, you might be interested in checking out our Cyber Security course that will teach you everything like Security essentials, Cryptography, Application Security, Cloud Security, Cyberattacks and various other Security practices for businesses.

Key Takeaways

Cyber Security came into existence to protect our systems from data breaches and other cyber attacks. Even though cyber crime has evolved a lot over the years, Cyber Security specialists have come up with their own set of protocols to fight cybercrime and protect our Network and Data. The best part is that Cyber Security has steadily become an important field and is now being taken seriously by every industry, large or small, that works with any kind of IT infrastructure.

If you think we convinced you to join the fight against cyber crime and become a Cyber Security specialist, check out our course and don’t forget to drop us a comment 🙂

Effective Ways on How to Improve your Interview Skills and Get Placed

Does the thought of job interview season have you biting nails and bouncing legs? Then consider this article your holy grail and keep reading to find out just how to ace job interviews with ease.

Starting with…

What are the successful strategies to crack interviews?

What are the successful strategies to crack interviews?

As a fresher, interviews can be painfully stressful. Especially when there’s no one to guide you through the insane amount of preparation you’re stuck with the day before. To make your life easier, we’ve noted down the most important strategies and interview tips for freshers before the D-day.

  1. Research about the company

    Research is one of the most important interview skills you must develop. You have to research about the company you are applying to and about the position they are offering you. Things you should keep in mind when researching for a new job interview or considering a prospective offer:

    • Your goals and expectations v/s the roles and responsibilities of the position you’re applying for.
    • Salary, this is very important. Your future employer has to match or come in a reasonable range of what you’re asking for.
    • If the position has had a high turnover rate, i.e many people leaving the role, then try to find out why that is the case and more about this position. Sites like Glassdoor are great places to check the company’s rating.
    • You should browse through these sites to get an overall idea of what the company culture is like. If possible, reach out to existing or ex-employees and ask more about the company.
    • Now if you’re sure you want to apply for this job role, your next step should be to not just research but to also learn about the company and its products/services/new launches.
    • Going further to learn about the company, check for any news about the company and go through their social media pages. The more you know about the company the more it will impress your future employers. And higher the chance of you having the best interview of all time.
  2. Utilise the STAR method

    When it comes to answer situational questions (like how have you handled conflicts in projects) during your job interview, the STAR method will help you structure your answers better. STAR stands for Situation, Task, Action and Result. Explain the Situation, list down your Responsibilities or Tasks, then talk about the Actions you took and finally the Result of your actions.

  3. Dress to impress

    Or as we like to call it dress well – test well. This obviously doesn’t mean you go out of your budget for the interview. But on the day of your interview ensure you’re well groomed and presentable by the company’s standards.

  4. Appear Confident

    Dressing well is only the first step to impressing your interviewers, if you don’t appear confident, all your prep is going to fall flat. Your confidence should be reflected not just in your answers, but also in your body language.

  5. Ask questions

    Once your interviewer is done questioning you, ensure you ask questions about the company or your job or your team. Asking the right questions is one of the most important interview skills you could teach yourself. The interviewer will feel that you actually care about the job and you’ll get to learn about your prospective team well in advance. It’s a win-win.

  6. Follow up

    After your job interview, it is possible you won’t hear back from the company on the promised date; in that case follow up with them. Either via email or via call if you have the number. If they haven’t made a decision on the position yet, you will definitely be at the forefront of their potential candidates.

Common Interview Questions (with answers too!)

Common Interview Questions (with answers too!)

It is hard to predict the exact questions your interviewer will ask you during your interview, so if we had to, we would place our bets on these commonly occurring interview questions for students and freshers. Answer these well and you’ll learn how to crack interviews for sure!

  1. Tell us about yourself.

    This is a very commonly asked interview question for students, and this is how you should answer it.

    Start by sharing a few details about where you’re from and what your background has been, where you studied etc. Then slowly transition into what your past work experience has been and what you have worked with in the past. Don’t add irrelevant details and drag the question on. It will create a bad impression on your part.

    Interview Hack: Use the Present Past-Future Rule to answer this question.

    • Start with what you’re currently doing in your career and add some examples or quantifiable details of your work.
    • Refer back to your Past and show your recruiter how it shaped your decisions.
    • Before you end the answer, throw in a bit about what your future aspirations are and how the company can help you get there.

    Another alternative interviewers take to ask this question is “Walk me through your resume” in which case you should talk less about your personal life and elaborate more on the achievements you’ve added on your resume.

  2. Why do you want to work for this company?

    Remember all that research we asked you to conduct in the earlier section?

    Use that to answer this question! Talk about how the company can help you achieve your goals or how your vision/goals align with the company’s goals. You can also add what work of theirs impressed or fascinated you. If they have published research work, talk about what aspects you liked about it. If you have friends within the company, you can talk about how you heard about the company’s culture and ethics and how you would want to be a part of it.

    However, don’t go overboard with the praises and make it come across as fake (should you choose to fake it till you make it).

  3. Tell me about a time you overcame a challenge.

    This is the most perfect opportunity you can find to demonstrate your skills through a story. Use the STAR method we spoke about earlier to give an added punch to your answer.

    • Situation

      Talk about a situation you faced in your previous job or in college. Did you ever work with super tight deadlines? Brownie points if it’s a team project.

    • Task

      How were you responsible for the project? What was your role in the story?

    • Action

      What measures did you (specifically) take to ensure that your project met the deadline? How did you make a difference?

    • Result

      Finish with the resulting outcome. Now ideally your story should end positively, however if it didn’t have a positive outcome talk about the lesson you learnt in the process.

    You can use this method to answer other differently worded questions like, “Can you work under pressure?” Or “talk about a setback or failure you faced.”

  4. Will you be able to work overtime or relocate should we ask you to?

    This is a very tricky answer with no “correct” answer. But our advice would be to answer truthfully and not say ‘yes’ to simply please your employers. Answer ‘Yes’, ‘No’ or even ‘Maybe’ based completely on your preferences and your situation. Just be sure to back up your answers with legitimate reasons.

  5. What are your Salary expectations?

    Another very important but very tricky question that you will be asked. And there is no doubt about this, at some point you will have to discuss your salary expectations with your future employers. These are the ways you go about this conversation:

    • You can ask your interviewer what their budget is and what they would be willing to offer you, to better understand the situation.
    • Take into account your living expenses, any other financial goals of yours before you agree to anything.
    • Don’t just quote a random figure, take into account your experience, how much the average person in your field makes, etc. If you have any other invaluable qualities then take that into account as well.

    This is a difficult situation to navigate, especially if you aren’t used to talking about compensation or money in general. But you have to remember that you are a hundred percent within your rights to ask for a fair salary that meets your needs.

    You should be covered with the above questions, but go the extra mile to prepare for any unconventional interview questions the interviewer could ask you. You’ll thank yourself later!

Types of Interviews

Types of Interviews

Depending on the company you apply for, there is a set pattern for the way interviews are conducted. These are possible types of rounds you could have during the entire interview process:

  • Personal Interview

    Your personal interview concerns all things you! You can expect questions about your life, your past career experiences, projects you might have worked on, the skills or tools you’ve picked up and so on and so forth. In the previous section, we have covered the different types of questions you could be asked.

  • Group Discussion

    In places where multiple candidates are interviewed for the same role, they hold group discussion rounds to test public speaking skills, confidence, general knowledge, and other soft skills. If the group discussion is domain-specific, they would also be looking out for your subject matter expertise.

  • Technical Round

    This is also carried out one-to-one or sometimes in larger organisations, an entire panel of interviewers take interviews. In the technical interview, they will purely test your domain knowledge in a particular subject. So be sure to prepare relevant subjects before your interview. If your field of choice requires domain expertise, you will not get the job without it.

There are other interview rounds as well, but these three are the most commonly occurring ones. In either case, remember to centre your answers around the company and their needs along with small anecdotes about yourself.

Final Thoughts (and tips)

Final Thoughts (and tips)

Interviews might feel really stressful for you, but with a little bit of experience you will come to realise that interviews aren’t something to break your head over. Just be confident in yourself and your skills, the rest will play itself out.

Some parting advice and interview tips to leave you people with – get a full night’s rest before your interview and don’t forget to smile at your interviewer!

If you think these can help you crack your interview and want to learn more about perfecting your interview skills through mock interviews, resume building workshops and more, check out our Placement Plus Program!

Then consider this article your holy grail and keep reading to find out just how to ace job interviews with ease.