Impact of ChatGPT and other AI tools in the workplace

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If you are a student or a fresher you might have entered a conversation about 

“Is AI going to take over human intelligence?” or “Will AI lead to mass unemployment in the marketing sector?”. Today, evolution in AI is a matter of concern for many working professionals or students choosing their career path. Especially after the introduction of ChatGPT 3.5.

In recent years, Artificial Intelligence has developed significantly shaping various industries and workplaces. AI has become a big subject in the tech industry as now it is involved in doing a lot of work which previously needed human intelligence.

AI offers a helping hand everywhere – from basic tasks like turning off the lights to more complex functions like developing apps and websites or security-led programming. This has led to speculation that AI tools will eventually replace developers, making programming a thing of the past.

The answer to these questions lies deep into understanding how AI works and how AI is going to be placed in the upcoming market. In this blog, we will explore the impact of AI on the workplace and how artificial intelligence certification can prepare developers for the future.

Most Popular AI Tools

Artificial intelligence or AI tools are introduced to make working easier and efficient for the workforce and to adroitly perform tasks which were tough and time consuming when done manually.

Gradually, these tools are undergoing massive improvements and are in great need in the current market, leading to a rise in demand for artificial intelligence courses. Many AI tools like Siri, Alexa, Grammarly, Dall-E, Jasper came in the market and became an indispensable part of everyday work. The development of ChatGPT was part of a larger effort to improve AI’s ability to process and understand natural language.

Prior to the introduction of ChatGPT, Natural Language Processing (or NLP) models were limited in their ability to understand and respond to complex natural language inputs. ChatGPT’s development represented a significant advancement in NLP, as it could generate coherent and natural language responses to a wide variety of input prompts. Its ability to generate human-like responses has made ChatGPT a valuable tool in improving the customer experience and streamlining communication between humans and machines. 

However, in today’s market, ChatGPT is standing as a great question mark on its impact on the human workforce, leading to more students signing up for artificial intelligence courses. Despite its many capabilities and a great working potential, it is hard to definitively say that it can ever replace developers. Let us see why.

Can AI tools Replace Developers?

Can AI tools Replace Developers?

Firstly, it’s important to understand what AI tools are and what they can do.

AI tools are software programs that use machine learning algorithms to automate tasks that would normally require human intelligence.

For example, some AI tools can generate code based on natural language descriptions of what the code should do, while others can identify and fix errors in code.While AI tools can automate some aspects of software development, they cannot replace developers entirely.

Here are some reasons why:

Creativity and Problem-Solving Skills: One of the most important skills that developers possess is creativity. They can come up with innovative solutions to problems that AI tools may not be able to handle. 

Developers can also understand the context of a problem and are able to apply their knowledge to find the best solution. AI tools, on the other hand, are limited by their algorithms and cannot think outside the box.

Flexibility: Developers need to be able to adapt to new situations and learn new skills quickly. They need to be able to work with new technologies and programming languages as they emerge. While AI tools can be trained on new data, they cannot adapt to new situations as quickly as humans.

Communication and Collaboration: Developers often work in teams, collaborating with designers, project managers, and other developers. They need to be able to communicate effectively and work together to achieve a common goal. While AI tools can assist in some aspects of software development, they cannot replace the human element of communication and collaboration. So, if you are going for artificial intelligence certification do remember to master soft skills with hard skills. 

Ethics and Responsibility: Developers are responsible for ensuring that their code is ethical and does not harm users. They need to be aware of the social and ethical implications of their work. AI tools, however, are not capable of making ethical decisions or understanding the consequences of their actions.

AI tools can assist in some aspects of software development. For example, they can automate repetitive tasks such as testing and debugging, freeing up developers to focus on more creative work. They can also help identify security vulnerabilities and suggest improvements to code.
For a better understanding, let’s check the uses and limitations of ChatGPT.

Highlights and Challenges of ChatGPT

Highlights and Challenges of ChatGPT

ChatGPT, like any other AI tool, is useful in many aspects but comes with its own sets of limitations. Here are some of the key uses and limitations of ChatGPT:

Uses of ChatGPT

  1. Chatbots and virtual assistants: ChatGPT is commonly used to develop chatbots and virtual assistants that can engage in natural language conversations with humans.
  2. Customer service: ChatGPT can be used to provide automated customer service by responding to common inquiries and providing helpful information.
  3. Language translation: ChatGPT can be used to translate text from one language to another, making it useful for communication across different languages.
  4. Personalization: ChatGPT can be used to personalise the user experience by understanding user preferences and tailoring responses accordingly.

Limitations of ChatGPT

  1. Lack of context: ChatGPT may sometimes lack the contextual understanding needed to provide accurate responses. This may lead to a non-relevant or unsatisfactory response.
  2. Biases: ChatGPT may exhibit biases in its responses due to biases in the training data or the way the model was developed.
  3. Limited understanding of the world: ChatGPT has limited understanding of the world outside of the data it was trained on. This can lead to a lack of understanding of certain concepts or events.
  4. Conditioned to training data: ChatGPT purely works on training data and continuously works on self-improvements. But it significantly lacks common sense and without sufficient and diverse data, its performance may be limited.



Overall, developers are creative problem solvers who can think outside the box, understand the context of software development, adapt to new technologies, collaborate effectively with others, and consider the ethical implications of their work. Until ChatGPT or any other AI tool doesn’t imbibe these traits, it is safe to say that human software developers will still be in need. However, companies will always be on the lookout for professionals who can work hand-in-hand with AI.

If you want to be this professional, then you should go for the upGrad Campus artificial intelligence certification. This course helps developers stay up-to-date with the latest AI technologies and prepare for the future. Be ready for the future, act today by talking to our experts.

Chatbots and Conversational AI: Improving Customer and Business Service

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Being a good friend who replies late or ignores messages may not affect your identity much, but have you ever thought what if a business does the same? It can cost you a good amount of clients.

But now business has evolved a lot in this field with the introduction of Conversational AI, Chatbots and Virtual assistance. Which makes Artificial Intelligence Course a high opportunity field in today’s market. Conversational Chatbots have significantly reduced the time a business takes to respond to their customer. It has also changed the way businesses manage their internal processes.

Moreover, Conversational chatbots have taken a supreme position after the introduction of video chatbots, that use visual and audio technology to answer the queries of the customers. By leveraging AI, businesses are now able to maintain 24/7 customer support, streamline internal processes, and improve overall efficiency at a very low cost.

Let’s dig a little deeper to know how Conversational AI can improve customer and business service, and the benefits they put out to us.

What are Customer Chatbot Services and Video Chatbots?

What are Customer Chatbot Services and Video Chatbots?

Chatbot services are AI powered computer programs developed to mimic human interaction with the help of machine and data-based learning. These are programmed to extract answers from different articles and data present on the internet.

Besides commonly used Chatbots, the introduction of video chatbots have proved to be a massive hit. These chatbots work on audio linguistics technology and are capable of answering questions by taking audio instructions. The video graphic representation makes it more indulging and mimics real conversations perfectly.

Moreover, these services can be integrated in various platforms like websites, social media accounts or messaging apps like WhatsApp business and Instagram business profiles to make customer service convenient and accessible at any time. These chatbots are based on psychology for product management to work on self-improvisations and update themselves through client’s conversation and queries and provide more personalised assistance over time.

With a long list of benefits these chatbots have brought a big revolution for business customer services. Let’s see how.

Impact of Chatbot customer service on business

Impact of Chatbot customer service on business

Chatbots have significantly received a warm welcome by the existing businesses and the employees. Let us explore how AI and conversational AI can improve customer and business service, and the benefits they bring to the table.

  • Round-the-clock support

One of the most significant benefits of conversational AI is its ability to provide round-the-clock customer service support. Customers can easily interact with chatbots to get answers to frequently asked questions, place orders, and resolve issues. This can save time for both customers and businesses, and improve overall customer satisfaction.

Additionally, chatbots can collect data and analyse customer behaviour, providing valuable insights for businesses to improve their products and services.

  • Streamlining Internal Processes with Virtual Assistants

Conversational AI can also be used to streamline internal processes and improve employee productivity.

For example, virtual assistants can help employees with tasks such as scheduling meetings, managing emails, and accessing important information.

This can save time and increase efficiency, allowing employees to focus on more strategic tasks.

  • Building Chatbots and Virtual Assistants

To build a conversational AI, individuals can pursue an artificial intelligence certification or take an artificial intelligence course. These courses can provide an understanding of the fundamentals of AI, machine learning, natural language processing, and more which can be useful for building chatbots and virtual assistants.

Additionally, there are several AI platforms available that make it easy to create and deploy chatbots without any coding experience. AI and Conversational chatbots have become so commonly used and hence is a vast growing opportunity field.

Let’s check how common they are and with how many conversational AI and Chatbots you are familiar with.

Popular Conversational AIs

Popular Conversational AI

Conversational AI is no more about giving pre- built answers to questions asked in a certain language or manner but it has elevated itself in understanding commands in many commonly spoken languages and providing personalised responses.

There are mainly three types of conversational AI: –

AI chatbots: – These are most used chatbots in small businesses and e-commerce websites and social media and messaging apps popularly found in WhatsApp Business, Facebook, Instagram. These chatbots are very reliable for providing virtual customer assistance and are easy to install and use in your business.

Voice-activated Bots: – These bots use Interactive Voice Response technology which allows users to interact with computerised systems using voice command inputs or touch tone keypad inputs. They are mostly used to handle high volume of incoming calls and redirect it to the authorised person. Some popular examples are Ameliai and AVA.

Interactive voice assistance: – These are voice enabled devices which are programmed to mimic human conversations in many different and now even regional languages. They allow users to communicate in simple and generic language without giving any specific command.

Amazon Alexa, Google Assistant, Apple Siri, and Microsoft Cortana are most common and successful examples of Interactive Voice Assistance.

Video bots: – These chatbots use video content as means of communication instead of regular text based conversations. These are programmed on the basis of NLP which is Natural Language Processing and machine learning algorithms.

Most common and popular video bots are Meena by Google, Blender Bot by Facebook, Tay by Microsoft.



Conversational AI has a strong grasp in today’s market and hence has a great career opportunity.

If you have interest in this field and you want to pursue a course in Artificial Intelligence Course then go for upGrad campus online Artificial Intelligence certification course that provides you the complete package with Live Sessions, Mentor Support and Placement Assistance.

Are you Ready to Start a successful Career as a Full Stack Developer?

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  1. Why becoming a fullstack developer will be the perfect move for you?
  2. Roles & Responsibilities of a Full Stack Developer
  3. Career scope of full stack developer
  4. Certification Program in Full Stack Development
  5. After completing the course jobs you can apply

In today’s digital age, Full Stack Development has become a highly sought-after skill set, and mastering it can open up a world of opportunities in the tech industry.

But before enrolment, let’s take a look at the course overview – starting from what this course is all about. 

So, take your phone and count the number of apps you have. Trust us, this task has complete relevance to the course we are reading in this blog. Full Stack Development is about end-to-end application software development including front-end designing and back-end development. 

Suppose you are browsing an e-commerce website, you can view the products/services, make a wish list, purchase, edit, or delete the items from the cart, etc. All these activities need a front end user interface with some logic to build connections within the application. All of this falls under the umbrella of Full Stack Development.

The reason why today companies hire full stack developers is because- 

  • They want someone who understands the complete project and thus takes ownership of the technology, programming codes, and updated features that suit the project. 
  • Since Full Stack Developers have both the knowledge of front end & back end, hiring them saves time and enhances productivity.
  • A Developer who has an end-to-end understanding of the project can fix the issues/bugs sooner than the separate team of Developers. 

But before companies hire you as a Full Stack Developer, it is important for you to get the right set of skills. And that’s where our Certification Program in Full Stack Development comes in.


Overall, this course is an important investment for anyone looking to pursue a career in web/app development. To stay relevant in this rapidly changing industry, this course will equip you with the necessary skills and knowledge and make you a valuable member of the team.

Why Becoming a Full Stack Developer will be the Perfect Move for you?

Why Becoming a Full Stack Developer will be the Perfect Move for you?
  • Versatility: Full Stack Developers are well-versed in multiple programming languages, frameworks, and tools. They have the ability to work on both the front-end and back-end of software development projects, making them versatile and valuable team members.
  • Career growth: Full Stack Development is a rapidly growing field, and there is a high demand for skilled developers. Completing this course can help you acquire the necessary skills to pursue a career in the tech industry, and open up opportunities for career growth and advancement.
  • Start-up culture: Full Stack Developers are often sought after by start-ups, where there is a need for developers who can take on multiple roles and responsibilities. Completing a full-stack developer course can prepare you for the challenges of working in a start-up environment.

The career scope after completing a full stack development course is currently very promising and is expected to continue to grow in the coming years. This is due to the increasing demand for web-based applications and the need for skilled professionals to build and maintain them. 

Roles & Responsibilities of a Full Stack Developer

Roles & Responsibilities of a Full Stack Developer

In recent years, almost every large and small business has seen a surge in Full Stack Development. The responsibilities of a full stack developer may vary depending on the specific project and organisation they work for, but generally include:


  • Developing and maintaining web applications that meet the client’s requirements.
  • Collaborating with designers and other developers to build a user-friendly interface.
  • Designing and developing the back-end architecture of the application, including server-side scripting and database management.
  • Testing and debugging the application to ensure its stability, security, and optimal performance.
  • Deploy the application to the production environment.
  • Continuously improving the application based on feedback from users and stakeholders.
  • Staying up-to-date with new technologies and trends in the industry.

Career Scope of Full Stack Developer

Career Scope of Full Stack Developer

The career scope after completing Full Stack Developer Course is currently very promising and is expected to continue to grow in recent years because of this trend toward cross-platform development and the growth of cloud computing. Let’s get a statistics report of its lucrative career in near future:


  • Ocean of Opportunities

Right from satellites in space to the mobile phones in our hands, the world has become technology driven. With the enormous expansion of social media platforms and digitally driven businesses, the demand for such stack developers will keep on rising in the upcoming years. Specialised engineering roles occupy the 5th position in the 2021 Emerging Jobs Report (India) from LinkedIn. Being the second fastest in digital adoption, India’s status as a world leader in technology is well established by now and the number of full stack developer positions has increased by more than 30%.


  • Pay Scale

India is considered one of the highest-paying jobs for Stack Developers, with an average salary of 9.5 LPA. According to experience, employment location, firm size, and many other factors, the pay would vary. With experience, one can earn between 16-20 LPA. They can easily handle the work of 2-3 developers with their expertise in multiple areas and a certification in full stack development course, thereby facilitating the formation of small teams, reducing communication gaps, and lowering operational expenses.


  • Job Satisfaction

The job satisfaction rating of a full-stack developer is 4 out of 5. They have numerous perks and higher job satisfaction because of their versatility and expertise on both sides of the spectrum. One of the highest salary packages ultimately results in job satisfaction, another aspect to consider here is career flexibility. They can work in their preferred sector, as they are knowledgeable about several aspects of the software development process. Most projects can be executed from  home, which makes them able to manage their work-life balance too.


  • Freelance Opportunities

Persons having such competencies and completed full stack development course do not face any shortage of job opportunities as businesses rely on them for a swift transition to the digital landscape. When it comes to freelancing, they aren’t left empty-handed. Several companies hire freelance full-stack developers on a contract basis or without one. The remuneration varies according to the experience and skills of a developer.


As you can see, Full Stack Developer has many benefits that make it an attractive career option. For companies seeking greater success in the technology sector, a full-stack developer is an invaluable asset. With the rapid advancements in software and technology, the demand for full-stack developers is expected to increase in the future. 

Wondering how to become one? Build your career with our Full Stack Development Course. Designed for beginners, this course covers all the concepts and skills required to become a Full Stack Developer  HTML and CSS to Database Management and more!

Certification Program in Full Stack Development
Certification Program in Full Stack Development

Here are some features that set our Full Stack Development course apart from other online courses:


  • Exclusively for College students
  • Live and Recorded Sessions
  • 400+ Learning hours
  • 6+ Hands-on Projects
  • Program experts from Google, Uber, LinkedIn
  • 1:1 interactions with industry professionals
After completing the Course you can apply for these Job Roles:-

After completing the Course you can apply for these Job Roles:-

Ready to be a pro in Full Stack Development? Click on the link and set your sights on a new career as a Full Stack Developer.

How to Become a Full Stack Developer: Required Skills and Responsibilities

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  1. Roles of a Full Stack Developer
    i) Front-end Programming Languages
    ii)Back-end Programming Languages
    iii) Databases
  2. What comes under Full Stack Development?
    i) MERN Stack
    ii) LAMP Stack
    iii) MEAN Stack
  3. How to become a Full Stack Developer?
    i) Full-Stack Developer Internship
    ii) Full-Stack Developer Bootcamp
    iii) Full-Stack Developer Certificate


Close your eyes and imagine your favourite app. 

Which was it? Swiggy? Spotify? Instagram? 

Now imagine how amazing it would be to build one of your own. 

If you’re stoked by the idea, then Full Stack Developer is definitely the career path for you. In this blog, we will discuss the step-by-step guide on how to become a Full Stack Developer, starting with what is a Full Stack Developer’s role, what to learn to become a Full Stack Developer, and finally the road to Full Stack Developer career.

Who is a full stack developer?

Who is a full stack developer?

When you navigate easily through a website or see those interactive designs on apps, a Full Stack Developer is at work to make every experience easy for you. Before we learn how, let us first understand what “full-stack” means.

“Full-stack” refers to technologies and products that form the technical ecosystem needed to build and operate the application. A stack typically includes a database, an application framework, a runtime platform and client-side web application framework. Each of those components are crucial to getting a web application working. 

A Full Stack Developer must be able to handle all the components of a stack to ensure they work together efficiently. They must able to work on:

  1. Front-end Programming Languages
    This is the interface of the application that is visible to the user. It includes the GUI (graphical user interface), navigation menu, the text that appears, images, videos, autoplays, etc. The languages used in the frontend are HTML, CSS, Javascript, etc.
  2.  Back-end Programming Languages

    This is the actual functionality of the application, which includes fetching data from the server/database and performing certain actions (like booking an order, playing a song, etc.). The languages used in the backend are Java, .Net, Python, etc.
  3. Database

    This is where the data is actually stored, and it is the Full Stack Developer’s responsibility to ensure that the right data is being fetched/displayed/updated correctly even when multiple users are trying to access it.

Since a Full Stack Developer needs a variety of skills, they are in high demand and are one of the most well-paid professionals today.

What should I learn for Full Stack Web Development?

What should I learn for Full Stack Web Development?

As discussed earlier, a Full Stack Developer must have the working knowledge of the stack. There are a variety of full-stacks in the market today:

  • MERN Stack
    • MongoDB
    • Express.js
    • React.js
    • Node.js
  •  LAMP Stack
    • Linux
    • Apache
    • MySQL
    • PHP
  •  MEAN Stack
    • MongoDB
    • Express.js
    • Angular.js
    • Node.js

One of the most widely used stacks in most organisations and highly recommended to learn is the MERN stack.

As shown above, the MERN stack includes:


MongoDB is an open-source document-oriented database that is designed to store a large scale of data and also allows you to work with that data very efficiently.


Express.js, or simply Express, is a back-end web application framework for Node.js. It is designed for building web applications and APIs.


React.js is an open-source Javascript framework for building interactive user interfaces and web applications more quickly and efficiently than you would with plain JavaScript.


Node.js is an open-source, cross-platform, back-end JavaScript runtime environment that lets developers use JavaScript to write command line tools and for server-side scripting (back-end).
In order to work on the MERN stack, a full stack web developer must also know these programming languages:


Java is an object oriented programming language extensively used to develop mobile apps, web apps, desktop apps and more.


The HyperText Markup Language, or HTML is the standard markup language to structure web content through headings, sub-headings, paragraphs and more.


Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used to apply styling rules to HTML content; for example – font, background colour, and more.


JavaScript is a scripting language that lets you control multimedia, animate images and implement dynamic behaviour on the client side (front-end).

Now that you know which are the required skills to become a Full Stack Developer, let us see how you can acquire them.

How to become a Full Stack Developer?

How to become a Full Stack Developer?

Now that you know about the most important skills for a full stack web developer, let us see how you can acquire those skills:

You don’t have to invest in a full-fledged degree to become a Full Stack Developer. Even without a tech background, there are ways to acquire the necessary Full Stack Development skills.

Full-Stack Developer Internship

If you have a decent knowledge of even one of the main programming languages (Java/C/C++/Python), you can start your career as a Full Stack Development intern, and pick up working knowledge of the other skills. There are many companies that offer internship opportunities. But if you’re struggling to find one, you can always sign up for upGrad Campus’s Internship Plus program which provides you 3 assured internship opportunities with their hiring partner.

Full-Stack Developer Bootcamp

There are many online bootcamps available that equip you with the programming skills you need as a beginner. There are bootcamps designed for specific skills like Java bootcamp, React.js bootcamp, etc. Before you select a bootcamp, make sure to pick the one that gives you hands-on experience in the same.

 Full-Stack Developer Certificate

This is one of the most effective ways to kickstart a career in Full Stack Development. A Full-Stack Developer Certificate gives you the right skills with hands-on practice, showcases your knowledge to recruiters and builds a project portfolio for you. One such example is upGrad Campus’s Full Stack Development Course. This course covers all the skills listed above and more. The entire curriculum is designed for beginners, so you need not have any coding background to take up this course. You will get plenty of hands-on experience with assignments, bootcamps, hackathons and 6+ projects.



We hope that this article clarifies all your doubts and apprehensions on becoming a Full Stack Developer. As you can see, all you need are the right skills and there is no one way of acquiring them. Pick an option that works for you, invest 6 months and build your dream app for your dream company!

Top 6 Skills Required to become Full Stack Developer

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What does a Full Stack Developer do?

What is Front-end Development?
What is Back-end Development?

Skills every Full Stack Developer needs


Do you want to become a basic Full Stack Developer? Or do you want to become a great Full Stack Developer? There is a fine line between the two. And that line is determined by the kind of skills you possess.

In today’s blog, we’re going to discuss the skills required for Full Stack Developers to succeed. But first let’s try to answer the most basic question – “what is a Full Stack Developer?”

What does a Full Stack Developer do?

What does a Full Stack Developer do?

In simple words, a Full Stack Developer is a person responsible for the Front-end, Back-end and/or Databases of a web application.

But what do these terms mean?

What is Front-end Development?

Also known as client side development, Front-end development focuses on the side of the application that users actually interact with. Front-end developers check the app for usability and ensure browser compatibility of the application or website. For example, if you’re working on a website, you’ll realise that simply having content is not enough. You need various additional sections, like “Contact us” or “Homepage”. A Front-end developer thinks all these things through.

What is Back-end development?

Back-end Development – you guessed it – is mostly behind the scenes. Back-end developers work with the server side of the application. They tie the databases, servers and applications into one well functioning unit. Back-end development provides the foundation for client-side development. Going back to the example of the website. In the “Contact us” section the Front-end developer has added a form for clients to fill. Then the Back-end developer’s job is to ensure that whatever information is added to the form, by the client, is actually getting stored on the company’s server.

A Full-stack developer is expected to juggle both front-end and back-end development of an application. They need to possess complete knowledge in multiple coding languages, frameworks, servers, networks and hosting environments.

A fresher with a diverse Full Stack developer skill set can not only work with the application, but can also consult and strategise on the end-product. To get a little more in depth, these are the activities that a knowledgeable Full Stack developer is likely to do on a daily basis:

  • Assisting with software development and design 
  • Software testing and bug fixing to keep it optimised 
  • Writing clean code for the front and back end of the software 
  • Designing user interfaces for the actual web application 
  • Constructing servers and databases for the software’s back end 
  • Improving and ensuring cross-platform compatibility 
  • Application responsiveness testing and maintenance 
  • Collaborating with graphic artists to create new features 
  • Adapting to technical developments to improve their software
  • Educating decision-makers on the benefits of developing technology 
  • Taking into account security, upkeep, scalability, and other factors when building the application

Now that we know what makes a Full Stack developer, let’s understand what are a Full Stack developer’s skills?

What makes for great Full Stack Developer Skills?

What makes for great Full Stack Developer Skills?

As you can see, being a Full Stack developer is no walk in the park. It calls for a diverse set of Full Stack web developer skills ranging from User Perspective to Coding.

Some of the technical skills a Full Stack Developer must have include:


HTML stands for HyperText Mark-up Language and is used in client-side or the Front-end development by Full Stack developers. HTML is used to format text and visual elements on the application. On the other hand, CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is used to add style and design elements to the application. Let’s simplify this with an example. Let’s say you are tasked with designing the human body, then in that case HTML will tell the program where the hands will go, where the nose will go etc. And CSS will help style and beautify the whole body.


Javascript is a text-based programming language that allows you to make your applications interactive. Due to its dynamic nature, it is used in both front-end as well as back-end development. One of the most common examples how Javascript can make static pages interactive, is the clickable search bar present on websites like Amazon. In Back-end development, Javascript is used for its various libraries and frameworks.

Git and GitHub

Famous among amateurs as well as seasoned Web developers, Git is used in Back-end development as a control system. Using this platform, developers can track coding changes and collaborate on one project with multiple developers. GitHub, is a cloud based platform where developers host their Git projects.

Back-end Languages

As a Full-stack developer you will be required to know a few Back-end languages like, Python, Java, PHP and Ruby. These languages craft the actual functionality of the application. The more languages you know, the more proficient you will be as a developer.

Web architecture

Web Architecture is the process of designing an architectural layout of how all the involved software will interact with one another. It helps us understand how all the different components in the network work together. And defines how the data will get transferred through HTTP, and that this is understood by the client and server side of the application.

Database Management Systems

For the smooth running of any application, there needs to be an even smoother Database Management System. As the name suggests, these manage Databases. A DBMS serves as an interface between data and the developer. It allows you to create, read, update and delete data stored in the databases.

Final Thoughts

Final Thoughts

Full Stack Development is a robust and exciting field that calls for a diverse range of skills. You have to quite literally do it all as a Full Stack developer, which is also what makes Full Stack developers irreplaceable to their organisations. It also explains why these highly skilled individuals are in so much demand!

Wondering how to be a Full Stack Developer? You can check out our Full Stack Development course. Designed for beginners, this course covers all the concepts and skills required to become a Full Stack developer. From HTML and CSS to Database Management and more! If you found this article helpful and were able to understand what a Full Stack developer’s skills are, drop us a comment!

What is Cyber Security and Different Types of Cyber Security?

In the last decade, Cyber crime has only increased with innumerous cyber attacks taking place every day on individuals and large corporations alike. Considering the digital age that we live in, it’s important to answer the question – What is Cyber Security and why does it matter?

In the simplest terms, Cyber Security is our internet’s very own army against the malicious cyber threats our systems are constantly subjected to. It is defined as any practice, technology, process or control that defends our electronic devices, programs, systems and networks and the data on these from cyber attacks.

Most people assume cyber attacks don’t affect them in any way, but that’s not true. Cyber crime affects everyone, and it is Cyber Security that is keeping our mobiles, laptops, softwares and networks free of hackers and other cyber criminals.

Why is Cyber Security Important?

Why is Cyber Security Important?

Cyber Security safeguards all kinds of information from theft and misuse. This includes sensitive information, personal details of individuals, medical records, intellectual property along with highly confidential government and industry related data. There is nothing stopping cyber criminals from targeting you, so throw out the notion that cyber crime does not concern you or isn’t a big deal for an individual entity. Without any kind of precaution, your information or your company would be completely at the mercy of cyber threats and cyber attacks.

In fact, the need for Cyber Security has increased tenfold as traditional Cyber Security practices like antiviruses and firewalls are no longer effective in holding cyber threats at bay. Since cyber crime can catch you off guard at any point from anywhere, it is important to cover all bases and ensure the highest level of security is maintained for all confidential and sensitive information.

Evolution of Cyber Security

Evolution of Cyber Security

The evolution of Cyber Security has gone hand in hand with the rise of cyber crime. All the way from 1971, when the first virus called the ‘Creeper’ affected systems on Tenex (an operating system). The virus was relatively harmless and displayed the words “I’m the Creeper. Catch me if you can!” across the screens of the affected computers.

The Creeper led the world’s first antivirus to be made, effectively called the ‘Reaper’. The Reaper was a self-replicating version of the Creeper that moved through the net, deleting copies of the Creeper.

There have been innumerable cyber attacks and counter attacks since the 70’s, and we’ve come a long way from the relatively harmless Creeper. A few notable milestones in the history of Cyber Security have been:

  • The inauguration of the Department of Homeland Security in 2002, by then U.S President George W Bush..
  • The passing of the General Data Protection Regulation, in the EU (circa, 2018). This bill gave users more control over their personal data and mandated the protection of such data by the organisations.

In the recent years, Cyber Security specialists, in a bid to to prevent cyber attacks, are focusing their efforts in these two areas:

The Internet of Things (IoT)

Cytelligence recently reported that hackers are more likely to make use of individual mobile devices or IoT devices like Smart Home devices, Smart TV , etc. All it takes is getting access to one of these devices, for the hacker to then infiltrate all the devices connected on that common network. This leads the hacker to gain possession of sensitive data including the victims’ medical records, personal information and bank statements.

Exponential Amounts of Data

The surplus of data flowing through the world concerns Cyber Security specialist and former Secretary of Homeland Security, Michael Chertoff. He claims that storing large amounts of data, especially when the data is confidential, can be an entryway for hackers to take over entire databases, which is why continuous efforts have to be made to safeguard these systems.

Cyber crime has risen far beyond the harmless Creeper and become far more dangerous for the systems as well the users involved in the hack. In fact, cyber crime can now be categorised in several distinct categories, each one with different targets and remedies.

Types of Cyber Threats

Types of Cyber Threats

We can grossly categorise the different types of cyber threats into these 7 sections:

  1. Malware

    As the name suggests, Malware is a malicious software that gains access when a malicious link or attachment is clicked by the host. When activated by the user, the malware can:

    • Block access to the device or account unless certain conditions are met (like a ransome being paid)
    • Obtain confidential information directly from the hard drive (spyware)
    • Install harmful software without the permission of the host
    • Play havoc on individual components of the device, making the whole system unstable
  2. Emotet

    Emotet was a banking trojan that evolved into one the most go-to malwares used to access the user’s private information including bank statements. At one point, it was known as the most costly malwares to affect the world. Emotet was usually transmitted via downloadable links in spam mails. Once the victim clicked the link, the malware would get installed directly.

  3. Denial of services

    A DoS is a type of attack where the computer network is overwhelmed with requests, which eventually leads the targeted computer unable to accept requests. Hackers sometimes use a botnet, which is also known as ‘zombie systems’, that are used to affect millions of computers at the same time.

  4. Man in the Middle

    Man in the Middle (MITM) refers to an attack where the hacker positions themselves in the middle of a conversation between the victim and the computer device. The hacker usually impersonates the system, making the user believe a normal exchange is taking place, and steals the personal information of the user.

  5. Phishing

    Almost all of us have one way or the other fallen for a phishing scam. Phishing attacks usually make use of fake communication (fake emails, messages, phone calls) to deceive the users into carrying out certain instructions (submitting bank details, log in credentials for websites), leading them to access the personal information of the user.

  6. SQL Injection

    SQL stands for Structured Query Language. An SQL injection is a type of cyber attack that infects servers using SQL with malicious code. Once infected the SQL server leaks out information.

  7. Password Attacks

    Most systems are only one password away from being vulnerable to a host of attacks. Social Engineering is a type of attack where the perpetrator causes the victim to break standard protocol and reveal their passwords. In other cases, hackers directly hack into password databases and steal the information of millions of users in one swoop. Apart from this hackers just use plain ol’ guessing. Keep 1234 as a password and it’s just natural selection at this point 😜

    Cyber crime has definitely risen to unimaginable heights in the last decade. However, not all is lost. With the rise of crime, the amount of security has risen too. Let’s take a look at the types of Cyber Security in place that protects our systems from malicious attacks.

What are the three different types of Cyber Security?

What are the three different types of Cyber Security?

Just like cyber crime, Cyber Security too can be broadly categorised into several sections. Let’s look at the 3 most prominent examples.

  1. Database and Infrastructure security

    Database and Infrastructure security is usually implemented for a cyber physical system, which includes everything from computers to water purifying systems and even electrical grids. Since all the networks we use include a physical counterpart, it would make sense to safeguard these first.

  2. Network Security

    Network Security is a set of rules, protocols and techniques made to protect the accessibility and confidentiality of data using both software and hardware technologies.

    There are 3 types of Network Security:

    • Physical Network Security

      stops unwanted access to the physical components part of the network (routers, cable cupboards, etc). Precautions like biometric scanners, physical locks, etc. are implemented as the first layer of security.

    • Technical Network Security

      takes care of all the data and information on the network as well as all the data getting transferred in and out of the network. TechSec makes use of various methods like network authentication management and IT security strategy.

    • Administrative Network Security

      controls user behaviour, including deciding what kind of authentication will be required from the user, the level of control each user has as well as how the IT staff implement changes.

  3. Application Security

    Since the entirety of the Tech world is running on applications, it is critical that we safeguard these softwares from malevolent attacks. Application security uses software and hardware for protection against threats that may appear during the development stage of an application life cycle. Application Security makes use of measures like firewalls, antivirus programs, encryption, etc.

    There are many other types of Cyber Security measures taken (Cloud security, Information security, etc.) that you’ll learn about if you choose to become a Cyber Security specialist.

Careers in Cyber Security

With cyber crime at an all-time high, the demand for Cyber Security professionals has increased exponentially. And with the rising level of crimes also comes never-ending opportunities in this field. Some of the most in demand jobs for freshers in this field are:

  • Cybersecurity Engineer
  • Cybersecurity Analyst
  • Network Engineer
  • Cyber Security Consultant
  • Cybersecurity Manager
  • Systems Engineer
  • Vulnerability Analyst
  • Software Developer
  • Cybersecurity Specialist
  • Ethical Hacker

If any of the above roles interest you, you might be interested in checking out our Cyber Security course that will teach you everything like Security essentials, Cryptography, Application Security, Cloud Security, Cyberattacks and various other Security practices for businesses.

Key Takeaways

Cyber Security came into existence to protect our systems from data breaches and other cyber attacks. Even though cyber crime has evolved a lot over the years, Cyber Security specialists have come up with their own set of protocols to fight cybercrime and protect our Network and Data. The best part is that Cyber Security has steadily become an important field and is now being taken seriously by every industry, large or small, that works with any kind of IT infrastructure.

If you think we convinced you to join the fight against cyber crime and become a Cyber Security specialist, check out our course and don’t forget to drop us a comment 🙂

Which are the Best Programming Languages for Beginners to Learn First?

Programming and coding for beginners especially, seems like a daunting task for most, however it doesn’t have to be. Taking it slow and starting with any one of these top programming languages will definitely help you start your journey as a programmer smoothly. 

In this blog, we will cover several such languages you can start your IT career with. There are several considerations you must take into account before you start learning any programming language. 

You should consider what level you would like to start at and the difficulty of the language you choose. You must also consider why you are picking up a programming language. Are you looking to build Mobile Apps or develop software? Knowing your end goal is important before you make a choice.

But first, let’s understand the various programming languages out there.

What is a programming language?

What is a Programming Language?

A programming language is the way developers communicate with computers. In order to get a computer to perform a particular task or for it to control an external device, we need to communicate using machine language. 

To put it simply, a program is a set of rules written in a programming language, in order for a computer to execute a particular task.

What are the different levels of programming languages?

There are three main levels of programming languages. They are Machine Language, Assembly Language and High-level Language. 

Machine language is closer to what computers work with and is therefore easier for machines to understand. But these are not understood by human beings easily.

Assembly languages are slightly easier to understand by people. In assembly languages, computer language is converted into English commands and numbers. Before the Assembly code is executed however, it is converted back into machine language by an Assembler.

High-Level Languages are almost entirely based on English syntax and numbers. Most High-level languages are scripting languages. This means that they aren’t converted back into machine language right until the very last moment when the code has to be executed. These kinds of languages are much easier to understand for programmers and developers. Most high-level languages need compilers for their instructions to be converted into machine language.

Different types of Programming Languages

Different types of Programming Languages

We can still further classify programming languages into:

  • Object Oriented Programming Languages, or OOP, are taught and used by most programmers. OOP relies on the use of Objects and Classes. To put it simply, OOP runs on these reusable blueprints of code (Classes) that are used to make different objects that mimic the real world. Examples of Object Oriented Programming Languages would include Java, Javascript, C, C++ and Python.
  • Logic Programming Languages are based completely on facts and rules. To compute logic, there must be a base of facts and knowledge. This base is known as Predicates. These predicates are used to create queries. Most Logic Programming Languages are based on queries which are further based on facts. For example, this is what Logic Programming looks like – F is true if D1, B2, and E3 are true. 
  • Procedural Languages follow a set of orders or commands chronologically. They make use of functions, conditional statements, and variables to build programs that the computer uses to calculate and display the wanted outcome. Some Examples include Pascal and FORTRAN. 
  • Functional programming binds everything together with pure mathematical functions. They are designed in a way that can handle complex symbolic computations. Some famous examples of functional programming include – Lisp, Python and Haskell.
  • Scripting Languages, use a high-level construct and they interpret and execute one command at a time. These languages are easy to understand and execute for programmers. Some examples include C and C++.

Now that you have an idea of the different kinds of coding languages, it brings us back to the original question, what coding languages should beginners learn?

We have listed our top picks for you!

Coding and Programming Language for Beginners

Coding and Programming Language for Beginners 


Python is a free, open-source programming language that has extensive support modules. It is easy to integrate with web services, making it popular for machine learning and deep learning.

Python for beginners especially is the easiest to pick up and is one the most popular programming languages out there today. It is based entirely on English syntax. Instead of having to start with complicated syntax rules, you can directly start learning Python because it reads like English itself. So you get coding experience, without having to worry about small rules that are important in other languages.

Python is also majorly in demand! Since it can be used for web development, graphic user interfaces (GUIs) and software development, recruiters are always on the lookout for Python programmers. 

And for good reason too – Python was used to build Instagram, Youtube and Spotify.


Java is an object-oriented programming language that is widely used for almost all types of software development and web applications. It is a high-level language making it easy to understand. 

The defining principle of Java is “written once run anywhere”, meaning that, once written, it can be executed on any device and can work across platforms. This is why Java programming is a very important skill, highly coveted by recruiters. 

Apart from this, Java programming was used to build the foundation for the Android operating system. It is also used in software development for iOS. Java is also used in the back-end development for Amazon, Google and Twitter.

A major pro about learning Java is its large online community, you can always receive help if you ever have any queries. 

However, it is important to note that Java programming for beginners is slightly more difficult to grasp, compared to Python.

C++ & C Programming for Beginners

C was the first programming language that all other programming languages were based on, making learning C programming almost fundamental. Once you learn C programming, you can easily pick up any other programming language. C and C++ were one of the most popular languages back in the day. C has a flexible and efficient memory management system, making it ideal to build the UNIX operating system. 

If you learn C programming, it will become very easy for you to pick up C++ as well. C++ was built as a more advanced version of C as a system programming language. Both languages are used extensively in Computer Science and programming. 

A key difference between C and C++ is that C is a procedural language whereas C++ is an object oriented programming language.

Both C and C++ are regarded as high-performance languages. They are used extensively in places where developers want to target the performance of a certain program. 

This is why most video games and intensive applications like Adobe and Mozilla Firefox, make use of C or C++.

How to learn coding online?

How to learn coding online?

Now that you know about the various programming languages, let’s get to work. How can you learn the programming language of your choice?

Back in the day, lack of options and facilities usually meant that people had to opt for Computer Science classes and invest a lot of money to learn programming. However, that isn’t the case anymore. 

Now with the advent and advancement of computers, we can easily learn coding online. Through online tutorials, study materials and other available resources. In fact, you don’t even need to search that far when it comes to the most popular programming languages. 

upGrad Campus has a course made especially for you! Watch out for our Essentials of Programming course which explains in-depth concepts for C, C++, Java, Python and Data Structures. You get to practice these with hands-on examples and apply the learnings to real-world problems.

We hope this article aided you in your decision about which programming languages to learn first. 

If you have any questions, feel free to leave them in the comments section below.

The Building Blocks of Blockchain

Whether you’re in tech or not, you have definitely heard of the term “blockchain”. Blockchain Technology has got to be the biggest game changer of this decade. In less than 10 years, it has already changed the way multiple sectors around the world store their data and conduct their business. It could also eliminate the need for banks. A long shot, but a considerable outcome of the cryptocurrency boom.

In our previous blog, we discussed Web 3.0 – the next generation of the internet.

We spoke about the need for a decentralised version of the internet. And if you remember, we also spoke of blockchain being the backbone of Web 3.0. So let’s understand how a blockchain functions and what makes it revolutionary.

Where it all started

Introduction to blockchain technology

Blockchain technology might have become mainstream recently, but its research had actually begun in the 1990’s, however it wasn’t until 2009 – when Bitcoin was created – that the technology was actually implemented. 

Bitcoin, as we all know, is the world’s first cryptocurrency. And initially blockchain only served as the backbone of cryptocurrency. Eventually, it was discovered that the blockchain technology can actually be separated from Bitcoin and be used in other ways as well.

Block by Block what makes blockchain

In the simplest terms – blockchain is made of multiple small blocks of information that are linked together. These blocks of information are called ledgers. Visualise a storekeeper making an inventory. A record of all the goods coming in and going out of his store. Now to make this record he has to note down all the relevant information like, the date a particular item came in. The expiry date, the name of the suppliers, so on and so forth. Then as and when each unit is sold he will have to note when it was sold, who it was sold to and how many units the buyer bought. 

So that is exactly what blockchain does. It stores relevant information that is transparent and visible to everyone in that network. So in the example with the store, the inventory is visible to everyone working in that store. And every individual page in the inventory book is equivalent to one single block. 

Now talking about a single block, as mentioned earlier, there are small amounts of relevant information stored in this block. In the case of Bitcoin since it is a currency, transaction details are stored.

Storytime ft. Bitcoin

Understanding Bitcoin

To better understand this, let’s say there are 4 people in a group – Tom, Jerry, Mike and Bruno. One day they all decide to go for a movie and Tom pays for the tickets. The rest of them – Jerry Mike and Bruno – have to pay Tom back. 

Now instead of using regular bank transfers where transactions fail everyday, they decide to use cryptocurrency instead. And they all decide to send Tom 1 Bitcoin each. So the first person to pay up is Jerry. 

When Jerry sends Tom a bitcoin a block is created, where the transaction is permanently inscribed. Along with the number of Bitcoins Jerry sent Tom, the details of the entire group’s individual balance is displayed as well. 

But these aren’t the only details that are stored in the block. Each block contains a unique hash number. A hash number is like a unique fingerprint that is generated according to the information stored in that block. 

But how do these blocks form a chain?

How does this Block form a chain

They form a chain because, along with the hash of the current block, the hash of the previous block is also displayed. So as and when a new block is created, the block would contain 1 new hash, as well as the hash of the previous block. Let’s go back to our example.

Say Jerry’s block has ABC as its hash. A day later Bruno sends across his share to Tom. In doing so a new block transcribing this transaction is created. This following block now has the updated account balances of the entire group and its own unique hash number – XYZ. Along with this it also has Jerry’s block’s hash number – ABC inscribed. 

This is how using Hash numbers you can track the history of the entire chain. And this blockchain, called a ledger, is public. That means that anyone part of this chain can view the complete transaction history of that ledger. 

It's all about security!

Now you might be wondering what makes Blockchain so secure? 

One can simply go change their transaction details right? 

Well not exactly…

Remember that the Hash is unique to the Data inscribed in a particular block and not the block itself. So the minute you change the data inscribed in a particular block, the hash number will change as well. But the hash will only change in this block. The succeeding block will still contain the original – non amended Hash number, making the whole chain invalid because the data does not match. 

One could argue that one can change the hash in all the blocks present in a chain. But this is where you should consider that it takes 10 minutes to change the data in 1 block. And some chains have upto a million boxes in them. So it’s not a viable option.

Further, there is still an additional layer of security present. Like we mentioned earlier, the blockchain or ledger is publicly distributed. So everyone on that network has a copy of this ledger. Therefore, in order to make a change, you will have to share that block with the group and they will vote whether or not that change is valid. If the majority votes “NO” then that block will get rejected and you won’t be able to make any changes. This is called the Consensus Rule.

The Bottom Line

Blockchain may have recently seen a boom in popularity but it has been around for a while now, and that should offer proof that it is going to be around for longer. We have already seen a few large and medium sectors adopt this technology to better facilitate their businesses, it will be quite fascinating to see how blockchain will be used by the rest of the world in the coming decades. 

What are your thoughts on blockchain? Let us know in the comments below.

What’s up with Web 3.0?

There has been a buzz of a revolution going around the tech industry for quite some time now. It started a minute after the advent of the cryptocurrency and only recently has it started 

to gain traction in the lives of those out of the tech sphere as well. 

Yes, we’re talking about the development of Web 3.0. 

If you’re new to this piece of information and are confused as to why a new web is being invented then keep reading because today we’ll discuss why the Web 2.0 you and love may become a thing of the past and what we can expect from the new era of the internet.

Before we get ahead of ourselves though, let’s understand Web 1.0 and Web 2.0.

Web 1.0 (1989-2004)

Web 1.0

Let’s take a trip down memory lane, shall we? (although, considering how long the internet has been around, for most of you this will be more of a history lesson than a flashback).

Web 1.0 as the name suggests is the first variation of the internet. It was also the most basic version of the internet. The boon with Web 1.0 was the fact that it was open source, which we’ll circle back to in a minute.

Web 1.0 was like a newspaper. Except newspapers could have images. But like newspapers,  the communication here was one way. People could only view the content, but had no opportunity to interact with it. At best, they could click on hyperlinks and go to other pages, or submit forms and surveys.

And the primary contributors of content at Web 1.0 were coders since the only way to put up content was to learn technical skills like HTML and then publish. Consumers had to read whatever was presented to them as they couldn’t interact with the source in any way. Web 2.0 revolutionised that.

Web2.0 (2004-present)

Web 2.0

Web 2.0 – or the version that might soon go out of fashion –  is the version we all currently use and consume. Web 2.0 was revolutionary at the time because it made use of multimedia, like pictures, videos, text, etc. to make the user experience more dynamic.

Web 2.0 introduced the world to blogs, Wikis, video sharing platforms like Youtube, microblogging sites like Twitter, and finally the pinnacle of that decade – social networking sites like – you guessed it – Facebook.

The key difference between the first two versions of the web is that Web 2.0 relied on users creating, sharing and themselves consuming that content. It would fall upon the tech giants, like Facebook, Google and Amazon, to provide a platform to make that possible. And this trend has persisted to date. Even today, 85% of content created and shared online is made by the users of those platforms. For example, all the reels and video content on Instagram aren’t made by Instagram itself. We, the users, make those and we are also the people that consume all that content made.

Another great feature of Web 2.0 is the birth of search engines – where users could type in relevant keywords and search for their desired results on the Search Engine Results Page. The only issue – which still exists by the way – is that the results aren’t always accurate. For example, if I were to type “apple” into Google’s search bar, the SERP would show me results for Apple inc. the company and not apple the fruit. In order to get results for the fruit, you would have to type Apple the fruit. We have to be extremely specific about what we type into the search bar to get the desired results.

Web 2.0 had a lot of other innovations too under its belt. From software development to social media, Web 2.0 has been the backbone of plenty of innovations. Then why the sudden call for change? 

Why a web 3.0?

Why a web 3.0

The main reason people want a new internet is – ownership. 

In the current version that is Web 2.0, you must have noticed that there is a monopoly. The majority of the internet is owned by certain companies only. For example, Google controls 87% of the global search market. And Facebook recently reached 3.6 billion users. While this is an incredible feat for these individual companies, it is preventing other companies from thriving and it is stopping new start-ups from blooming. This is because all the new startups are forced to build their products on the monopolists’ platform, where the protocols are not defined in the beginning and they can change at any point, sometimes without reason. 

For example, you might remember a particular Instagram ad campaign from messaging app Signal that was meant to show the reality of how your information is sold to advertisers. The ad was filled with hyper-specific keywords that would be used to target certain groups of people. Well, that didn’t go over too well with Facebook. The campaign was blocked before it went live and Signal was banned from Facebook ads altogether. Businesses that try to get on these monopoly platforms often take this issue. They cannot afford to get out of the platform. And the platform rules change, sometimes without any transparency and at a great cost to the business owners.

But ownership is not the only reason for the need for Web 3.0. Another factor has been privacy.

Privacy. What privacy?

Web 3.0 and Data Privacy

Data privacy has become a huge issue in the last decade. The data we put out on the internet is not ours anymore. It is taken and sold to businesses. Usually, it is targeted advertising, which seems harmless by itself, but there are far more dangerous things that can be done with our data – that aren’t completely illegal.

Preferences of users are heavily used not to simply market things to them, but also to shape public opinion. A classic example of this was the US presidential elections scandal in which user data was used for micro-targeting to sway people’s votes. 

When other information, like users’ location, their health-related information and financial data get in the wrong hands, privacy and security become every individual’s concerns. Data and privacy has become such a big deal that Apple launched a new privacy feature with iOS 15.5 that masks their users’ IP address so that it can’t be linked with their activity on the web. This small feature alone is set to cost Facebook 10 Billion dollars in damages.  

Not just that. When we use Big Tech platforms, our data is continuously collected and stored in the company’s central storage systems. Since our data is now controlled by these companies, we have no way to secure our data. It can be hacked from these centralised systems at any point. And it has happened multiple times in the past as well.

Final Thoughts


So there you have it – all the reasons why people want to change the old ways and switch to Web 3.0. But this is easier said than done. 

Like any other technology, Web 3.0 faces its own set of challenges, and without the proper I.T infrastructure to back it, it might as well be a pipe dream. But hopefully, in trying to build a new internet, we’ll find a lot more advancements along the way. 

What are your thoughts on Web 3.0? Let us know in the comments below.

Proof that Cyber Security concerns Everyone.

Cyber crime to most people feels too trivial a problem to take seriously. They probably think that a few stolen numbers and passwords won’t affect them, believing that they have no important data that needs protection as such. On the other end of the spectrum, there are those who constantly fret over weak cyber security and will probably go out of their way to cover their laptop camera with tape, taking no chances when it comes to their data.

So which one are you? Someone who doesn’t really care what happens to their data or are you a Cyber Security aspirant – waiting to rid the world of cyber crime?

Well, whatever the case might be, we are here to give all you naysayers some incentive to take Cyber Security more seriously and for all you Cyber Security optimists, proof that you have been right to take Cyber crime seriously all along!

In this blog, we’re going to cover 2 prominent cases of serious cyber breaches that had unfathomable consequences for the people and companies involved.

the RAT at Marriot Hotels

One of the leading brands in the hospitality industry, Marriott faced a lot of challenges back in 2018 when they found out that one of their reservation systems had been compromised – the reservation system at their Starwood properties to be exact. 

A hack of a story ft. Marriot

A brief history of the Marriott – Starwood Merger

Starwood properties weren’t always a part of Marriott. Once an independent chain hosting a multitude of brands like St. Regis, Sheraton, Westin and W hotels, it was acquired by Marriott in 2016. But the issue predates this acquisition. 

Marriott revealed that the reservation system had actually been compromised sometime in 2014. Unbeknownst to either brand back then, the compromised reservation system was used even after the acquisition, since much of the IT infrastructure remained the same and had not been integrated into Marriott’s private reservation system (MARSHA).

So how was the breach detected?

Sometime in 2018, a security tool flagged an unusual database query and Accenture brought it to light. Accenture had been running IT and infosecurity for Starwood properties and continued to do so once Starwood became a part of Marriott hotels.

The query was made by a user with administrator privileges, but Accenture quickly realised that the query hadn’t actually come from that account and that the account had been hacked. After digging around for more information they found a RAT in the system (and no, we don’t mean an actual rat). They discovered a Remote Access Trojan (RAT) and Mimikatz, a dangerous malware that discovers passwords and user information. Paired together, it is theorised that these two malware tools could’ve given the hackers control of that account. 

The cyber threat effect affects us all inevitably.

The damage? The personal information of more than 500 million guests was potentially stolen, which included some really sensitive information like their credit card information and passport numbers, much to the dismay of their customers

 The only silver lining to the breach of data was that none of the data ever made it to the dark web, nor was it sold anywhere else. However, this news didn’t curb the panic that ensued, as millions of people started cancelling their cards and transferring their money to more secure accounts to ensure that they weren’t defrauded in the future. Which is why, even though the data wasn’t leaked anywhere, people were still affected by the news. This rings true for all cyber crime attacks, once your data has been made vulnerable, you will have to change all your details to safeguard yourself once more.

Yahoo! and its Cyber saga

Considering its large user base, Yahoo has fought multiple long and arduous battles against cyber-criminals over the last decade. 

 The timeline of these attacks would look something like this:

Critical Attacks Yahoo Has Encountered
  • 2012 

The first notable attack was a decade ago in 2012 when Yahoo Voices, formerly known as Associated Content, was hacked and 400,000 user accounts were compromised in the attack. 

So what made this hack possible? The problem occurred due to the weak security in the systems Yahoo acquired during the acquisition of Associated Content. As in the case of Marriott, these systems weren’t checked nor were they updated.

  • 2013

Less than a year after announcing the unfortunate hacking of Yahoo Voices, Yahoo Mail was targeted. Many customers came out with complaints, stating that their accounts had been hacked. The source? Phishing mails. Yahoo users were sent phishing emails that, once clicked on, gave the hackers complete access to their mail and subsequently, access to their calendar as well.

  • 2014

There was no rest for the wicked this year either. Yahoo made an announcement in the latter half of January that there was an attempted hack, where customer data – passwords and user ids – were made vulnerable. The hackers had allegedly tried to breach email accounts after getting a list of email addresses and passwords from a third-party server. Yahoo changed the passwords swiftly to put a stop to the attacks.

  • 2016

In the late September of 2016, Yahoo, once again, made a public announcement, stating that 500 Million accounts were hacked. This time around, encrypted and unencrypted, including passwords, answers to security questions, mail addresses, telephone numbers and dates of birth were hacked. Yahoo pointed fingers at alleged state-sponsored hackers and hailed them as the main culprits behind this hack. This claim was obviously disputed. Yahoo also claimed that the hack was carried out using forged cookies, which eliminated the need for passwords, to gain user access.

  • 2016 (Again)

Come December of 2016, a mere 3 months later, Yahoo made history by announcing the biggest data breach up till date. The hack occurred sometime in 2013 and was brought to light after an investigation by law enforcement that took place after a tip-off. 

What makes this hack historical? More than a billion accounts were reported to be hacked. Much like its precursor in September, the passwords, email addresses, encrypted and unencrypted data including security questions and their answers were hacked. The hack was also carried out using forged cookies to gain user access.

After this flood of cyber attacks over the last decade, Yahoo’s reputation has suffered irredeemably, not only because security wasn’t prioritised multiple times, but also because they failed to disclose these hacks earlier, making it look like a cover-up, which didn’t sit well with their loyal patrons. 

The Aftermath

The aftermath for both these cases was devastating to the companies involved. Marriott Hotels was fined more than 120 Million USD for violating the privacy of British citizens under the GDPR. Further, Marriott had to cover additional costs of the breach itself. Likewise, Yahoo had to pay over 50 Million in fines.

But it’s not just about monetary loss that they inevitably incurred. It’s more about their brand image that was damaged through the whole ordeal.

So assume this to be your sign to take Cyber threats more seriously. If this blog has inspired you to consider Cyber Security as a career, upGrad Campus has courses tailored specifically for you. Do check out the Certificate course in upGrad Campus and get to saving our data from these malicious attacks today!