What is Cyber Security and Different Types of Cyber Security?

In the last decade, Cyber crime has only increased with innumerous cyber attacks taking place every day on individuals and large corporations alike. Considering the digital age that we live in, it’s important to answer the question – What is Cyber Security and why does it matter?

In the simplest terms, Cyber Security is our internet’s very own army against the malicious cyber threats our systems are constantly subjected to. It is defined as any practice, technology, process or control that defends our electronic devices, programs, systems and networks and the data on these from cyber attacks.

Most people assume cyber attacks don’t affect them in any way, but that’s not true. Cyber crime affects everyone, and it is Cyber Security that is keeping our mobiles, laptops, softwares and networks free of hackers and other cyber criminals.

Why is Cyber Security Important?

Why is Cyber Security Important?

Cyber Security safeguards all kinds of information from theft and misuse. This includes sensitive information, personal details of individuals, medical records, intellectual property along with highly confidential government and industry related data. There is nothing stopping cyber criminals from targeting you, so throw out the notion that cyber crime does not concern you or isn’t a big deal for an individual entity. Without any kind of precaution, your information or your company would be completely at the mercy of cyber threats and cyber attacks.

In fact, the need for Cyber Security has increased tenfold as traditional Cyber Security practices like antiviruses and firewalls are no longer effective in holding cyber threats at bay. Since cyber crime can catch you off guard at any point from anywhere, it is important to cover all bases and ensure the highest level of security is maintained for all confidential and sensitive information.

Evolution of Cyber Security

Evolution of Cyber Security

The evolution of Cyber Security has gone hand in hand with the rise of cyber crime. All the way from 1971, when the first virus called the ‘Creeper’ affected systems on Tenex (an operating system). The virus was relatively harmless and displayed the words “I’m the Creeper. Catch me if you can!” across the screens of the affected computers.

The Creeper led the world’s first antivirus to be made, effectively called the ‘Reaper’. The Reaper was a self-replicating version of the Creeper that moved through the net, deleting copies of the Creeper.

There have been innumerable cyber attacks and counter attacks since the 70’s, and we’ve come a long way from the relatively harmless Creeper. A few notable milestones in the history of Cyber Security have been:

  • The inauguration of the Department of Homeland Security in 2002, by then U.S President George W Bush..
  • The passing of the General Data Protection Regulation, in the EU (circa, 2018). This bill gave users more control over their personal data and mandated the protection of such data by the organisations.

In the recent years, Cyber Security specialists, in a bid to to prevent cyber attacks, are focusing their efforts in these two areas:

The Internet of Things (IoT)

Cytelligence recently reported that hackers are more likely to make use of individual mobile devices or IoT devices like Smart Home devices, Smart TV , etc. All it takes is getting access to one of these devices, for the hacker to then infiltrate all the devices connected on that common network. This leads the hacker to gain possession of sensitive data including the victims’ medical records, personal information and bank statements.

Exponential Amounts of Data

The surplus of data flowing through the world concerns Cyber Security specialist and former Secretary of Homeland Security, Michael Chertoff. He claims that storing large amounts of data, especially when the data is confidential, can be an entryway for hackers to take over entire databases, which is why continuous efforts have to be made to safeguard these systems.

Cyber crime has risen far beyond the harmless Creeper and become far more dangerous for the systems as well the users involved in the hack. In fact, cyber crime can now be categorised in several distinct categories, each one with different targets and remedies.

Types of Cyber Threats

Types of Cyber Threats

We can grossly categorise the different types of cyber threats into these 7 sections:

  1. Malware

    As the name suggests, Malware is a malicious software that gains access when a malicious link or attachment is clicked by the host. When activated by the user, the malware can:

    • Block access to the device or account unless certain conditions are met (like a ransome being paid)
    • Obtain confidential information directly from the hard drive (spyware)
    • Install harmful software without the permission of the host
    • Play havoc on individual components of the device, making the whole system unstable
  2. Emotet

    Emotet was a banking trojan that evolved into one the most go-to malwares used to access the user’s private information including bank statements. At one point, it was known as the most costly malwares to affect the world. Emotet was usually transmitted via downloadable links in spam mails. Once the victim clicked the link, the malware would get installed directly.

  3. Denial of services

    A DoS is a type of attack where the computer network is overwhelmed with requests, which eventually leads the targeted computer unable to accept requests. Hackers sometimes use a botnet, which is also known as ‘zombie systems’, that are used to affect millions of computers at the same time.

  4. Man in the Middle

    Man in the Middle (MITM) refers to an attack where the hacker positions themselves in the middle of a conversation between the victim and the computer device. The hacker usually impersonates the system, making the user believe a normal exchange is taking place, and steals the personal information of the user.

  5. Phishing

    Almost all of us have one way or the other fallen for a phishing scam. Phishing attacks usually make use of fake communication (fake emails, messages, phone calls) to deceive the users into carrying out certain instructions (submitting bank details, log in credentials for websites), leading them to access the personal information of the user.

  6. SQL Injection

    SQL stands for Structured Query Language. An SQL injection is a type of cyber attack that infects servers using SQL with malicious code. Once infected the SQL server leaks out information.

  7. Password Attacks

    Most systems are only one password away from being vulnerable to a host of attacks. Social Engineering is a type of attack where the perpetrator causes the victim to break standard protocol and reveal their passwords. In other cases, hackers directly hack into password databases and steal the information of millions of users in one swoop. Apart from this hackers just use plain ol’ guessing. Keep 1234 as a password and it’s just natural selection at this point 😜

    Cyber crime has definitely risen to unimaginable heights in the last decade. However, not all is lost. With the rise of crime, the amount of security has risen too. Let’s take a look at the types of Cyber Security in place that protects our systems from malicious attacks.

What are the three different types of Cyber Security?

What are the three different types of Cyber Security?

Just like cyber crime, Cyber Security too can be broadly categorised into several sections. Let’s look at the 3 most prominent examples.

  1. Database and Infrastructure security

    Database and Infrastructure security is usually implemented for a cyber physical system, which includes everything from computers to water purifying systems and even electrical grids. Since all the networks we use include a physical counterpart, it would make sense to safeguard these first.

  2. Network Security

    Network Security is a set of rules, protocols and techniques made to protect the accessibility and confidentiality of data using both software and hardware technologies.

    There are 3 types of Network Security:

    • Physical Network Security

      stops unwanted access to the physical components part of the network (routers, cable cupboards, etc). Precautions like biometric scanners, physical locks, etc. are implemented as the first layer of security.

    • Technical Network Security

      takes care of all the data and information on the network as well as all the data getting transferred in and out of the network. TechSec makes use of various methods like network authentication management and IT security strategy.

    • Administrative Network Security

      controls user behaviour, including deciding what kind of authentication will be required from the user, the level of control each user has as well as how the IT staff implement changes.

  3. Application Security

    Since the entirety of the Tech world is running on applications, it is critical that we safeguard these softwares from malevolent attacks. Application security uses software and hardware for protection against threats that may appear during the development stage of an application life cycle. Application Security makes use of measures like firewalls, antivirus programs, encryption, etc.

    There are many other types of Cyber Security measures taken (Cloud security, Information security, etc.) that you’ll learn about if you choose to become a Cyber Security specialist.

Careers in Cyber Security

With cyber crime at an all-time high, the demand for Cyber Security professionals has increased exponentially. And with the rising level of crimes also comes never-ending opportunities in this field. Some of the most in demand jobs for freshers in this field are:

  • Cybersecurity Engineer
  • Cybersecurity Analyst
  • Network Engineer
  • Cyber Security Consultant
  • Cybersecurity Manager
  • Systems Engineer
  • Vulnerability Analyst
  • Software Developer
  • Cybersecurity Specialist
  • Ethical Hacker

If any of the above roles interest you, you might be interested in checking out our Cyber Security course that will teach you everything like Security essentials, Cryptography, Application Security, Cloud Security, Cyberattacks and various other Security practices for businesses.

Key Takeaways

Cyber Security came into existence to protect our systems from data breaches and other cyber attacks. Even though cyber crime has evolved a lot over the years, Cyber Security specialists have come up with their own set of protocols to fight cybercrime and protect our Network and Data. The best part is that Cyber Security has steadily become an important field and is now being taken seriously by every industry, large or small, that works with any kind of IT infrastructure.

If you think we convinced you to join the fight against cyber crime and become a Cyber Security specialist, check out our course and don’t forget to drop us a comment 🙂

Which are the Best Programming Languages for Beginners to Learn First?

Programming and coding for beginners especially, seems like a daunting task for most, however it doesn’t have to be. Taking it slow and starting with any one of these top programming languages will definitely help you start your journey as a programmer smoothly. 

In this blog, we will cover several such languages you can start your IT career with. There are several considerations you must take into account before you start learning any programming language. 

You should consider what level you would like to start at and the difficulty of the language you choose. You must also consider why you are picking up a programming language. Are you looking to build Mobile Apps or develop software? Knowing your end goal is important before you make a choice.

But first, let’s understand the various programming languages out there.

What is a programming language?

What is a Programming Language?

A programming language is the way developers communicate with computers. In order to get a computer to perform a particular task or for it to control an external device, we need to communicate using machine language. 

To put it simply, a program is a set of rules written in a programming language, in order for a computer to execute a particular task.

What are the different levels of programming languages?

There are three main levels of programming languages. They are Machine Language, Assembly Language and High-level Language. 

Machine language is closer to what computers work with and is therefore easier for machines to understand. But these are not understood by human beings easily.

Assembly languages are slightly easier to understand by people. In assembly languages, computer language is converted into English commands and numbers. Before the Assembly code is executed however, it is converted back into machine language by an Assembler.

High-Level Languages are almost entirely based on English syntax and numbers. Most High-level languages are scripting languages. This means that they aren’t converted back into machine language right until the very last moment when the code has to be executed. These kinds of languages are much easier to understand for programmers and developers. Most high-level languages need compilers for their instructions to be converted into machine language.

Different types of Programming Languages

Different types of Programming Languages

We can still further classify programming languages into:

  • Object Oriented Programming Languages, or OOP, are taught and used by most programmers. OOP relies on the use of Objects and Classes. To put it simply, OOP runs on these reusable blueprints of code (Classes) that are used to make different objects that mimic the real world. Examples of Object Oriented Programming Languages would include Java, Javascript, C, C++ and Python.
  • Logic Programming Languages are based completely on facts and rules. To compute logic, there must be a base of facts and knowledge. This base is known as Predicates. These predicates are used to create queries. Most Logic Programming Languages are based on queries which are further based on facts. For example, this is what Logic Programming looks like – F is true if D1, B2, and E3 are true. 
  • Procedural Languages follow a set of orders or commands chronologically. They make use of functions, conditional statements, and variables to build programs that the computer uses to calculate and display the wanted outcome. Some Examples include Pascal and FORTRAN. 
  • Functional programming binds everything together with pure mathematical functions. They are designed in a way that can handle complex symbolic computations. Some famous examples of functional programming include – Lisp, Python and Haskell.
  • Scripting Languages, use a high-level construct and they interpret and execute one command at a time. These languages are easy to understand and execute for programmers. Some examples include C and C++.

Now that you have an idea of the different kinds of coding languages, it brings us back to the original question, what coding languages should beginners learn?

We have listed our top picks for you!

Coding and Programming Language for Beginners

Coding and Programming Language for Beginners 


Python is a free, open-source programming language that has extensive support modules. It is easy to integrate with web services, making it popular for machine learning and deep learning.

Python for beginners especially is the easiest to pick up and is one the most popular programming languages out there today. It is based entirely on English syntax. Instead of having to start with complicated syntax rules, you can directly start learning Python because it reads like English itself. So you get coding experience, without having to worry about small rules that are important in other languages.

Python is also majorly in demand! Since it can be used for web development, graphic user interfaces (GUIs) and software development, recruiters are always on the lookout for Python programmers. 

And for good reason too – Python was used to build Instagram, Youtube and Spotify.


Java is an object-oriented programming language that is widely used for almost all types of software development and web applications. It is a high-level language making it easy to understand. 

The defining principle of Java is “written once run anywhere”, meaning that, once written, it can be executed on any device and can work across platforms. This is why Java programming is a very important skill, highly coveted by recruiters. 

Apart from this, Java programming was used to build the foundation for the Android operating system. It is also used in software development for iOS. Java is also used in the back-end development for Amazon, Google and Twitter.

A major pro about learning Java is its large online community, you can always receive help if you ever have any queries. 

However, it is important to note that Java programming for beginners is slightly more difficult to grasp, compared to Python.

C++ & C Programming for Beginners

C was the first programming language that all other programming languages were based on, making learning C programming almost fundamental. Once you learn C programming, you can easily pick up any other programming language. C and C++ were one of the most popular languages back in the day. C has a flexible and efficient memory management system, making it ideal to build the UNIX operating system. 

If you learn C programming, it will become very easy for you to pick up C++ as well. C++ was built as a more advanced version of C as a system programming language. Both languages are used extensively in Computer Science and programming. 

A key difference between C and C++ is that C is a procedural language whereas C++ is an object oriented programming language.

Both C and C++ are regarded as high-performance languages. They are used extensively in places where developers want to target the performance of a certain program. 

This is why most video games and intensive applications like Adobe and Mozilla Firefox, make use of C or C++.

How to learn coding online?

How to learn coding online?

Now that you know about the various programming languages, let’s get to work. How can you learn the programming language of your choice?

Back in the day, lack of options and facilities usually meant that people had to opt for Computer Science classes and invest a lot of money to learn programming. However, that isn’t the case anymore. 

Now with the advent and advancement of computers, we can easily learn coding online. Through online tutorials, study materials and other available resources. In fact, you don’t even need to search that far when it comes to the most popular programming languages. 

upGrad Campus has a course made especially for you! Watch out for our Essentials of Programming course which explains in-depth concepts for C, C++, Java, Python and Data Structures. You get to practice these with hands-on examples and apply the learnings to real-world problems.

We hope this article aided you in your decision about which programming languages to learn first. 

If you have any questions, feel free to leave them in the comments section below.

The Building Blocks of Blockchain

Whether you’re in tech or not, you have definitely heard of the term “blockchain”. Blockchain Technology has got to be the biggest game changer of this decade. In less than 10 years, it has already changed the way multiple sectors around the world store their data and conduct their business. It could also eliminate the need for banks. A long shot, but a considerable outcome of the cryptocurrency boom.

In our previous blog, we discussed Web 3.0 – the next generation of the internet.

We spoke about the need for a decentralised version of the internet. And if you remember, we also spoke of blockchain being the backbone of Web 3.0. So let’s understand how a blockchain functions and what makes it revolutionary.

Where it all started

Introduction to blockchain technology

Blockchain technology might have become mainstream recently, but its research had actually begun in the 1990’s, however it wasn’t until 2009 – when Bitcoin was created – that the technology was actually implemented. 

Bitcoin, as we all know, is the world’s first cryptocurrency. And initially blockchain only served as the backbone of cryptocurrency. Eventually, it was discovered that the blockchain technology can actually be separated from Bitcoin and be used in other ways as well.

Block by Block what makes blockchain

In the simplest terms – blockchain is made of multiple small blocks of information that are linked together. These blocks of information are called ledgers. Visualise a storekeeper making an inventory. A record of all the goods coming in and going out of his store. Now to make this record he has to note down all the relevant information like, the date a particular item came in. The expiry date, the name of the suppliers, so on and so forth. Then as and when each unit is sold he will have to note when it was sold, who it was sold to and how many units the buyer bought. 

So that is exactly what blockchain does. It stores relevant information that is transparent and visible to everyone in that network. So in the example with the store, the inventory is visible to everyone working in that store. And every individual page in the inventory book is equivalent to one single block. 

Now talking about a single block, as mentioned earlier, there are small amounts of relevant information stored in this block. In the case of Bitcoin since it is a currency, transaction details are stored.

Storytime ft. Bitcoin

Understanding Bitcoin

To better understand this, let’s say there are 4 people in a group – Tom, Jerry, Mike and Bruno. One day they all decide to go for a movie and Tom pays for the tickets. The rest of them – Jerry Mike and Bruno – have to pay Tom back. 

Now instead of using regular bank transfers where transactions fail everyday, they decide to use cryptocurrency instead. And they all decide to send Tom 1 Bitcoin each. So the first person to pay up is Jerry. 

When Jerry sends Tom a bitcoin a block is created, where the transaction is permanently inscribed. Along with the number of Bitcoins Jerry sent Tom, the details of the entire group’s individual balance is displayed as well. 

But these aren’t the only details that are stored in the block. Each block contains a unique hash number. A hash number is like a unique fingerprint that is generated according to the information stored in that block. 

But how do these blocks form a chain?

How does this Block form a chain

They form a chain because, along with the hash of the current block, the hash of the previous block is also displayed. So as and when a new block is created, the block would contain 1 new hash, as well as the hash of the previous block. Let’s go back to our example.

Say Jerry’s block has ABC as its hash. A day later Bruno sends across his share to Tom. In doing so a new block transcribing this transaction is created. This following block now has the updated account balances of the entire group and its own unique hash number – XYZ. Along with this it also has Jerry’s block’s hash number – ABC inscribed. 

This is how using Hash numbers you can track the history of the entire chain. And this blockchain, called a ledger, is public. That means that anyone part of this chain can view the complete transaction history of that ledger. 

It's all about security!

Now you might be wondering what makes Blockchain so secure? 

One can simply go change their transaction details right? 

Well not exactly…

Remember that the Hash is unique to the Data inscribed in a particular block and not the block itself. So the minute you change the data inscribed in a particular block, the hash number will change as well. But the hash will only change in this block. The succeeding block will still contain the original – non amended Hash number, making the whole chain invalid because the data does not match. 

One could argue that one can change the hash in all the blocks present in a chain. But this is where you should consider that it takes 10 minutes to change the data in 1 block. And some chains have upto a million boxes in them. So it’s not a viable option.

Further, there is still an additional layer of security present. Like we mentioned earlier, the blockchain or ledger is publicly distributed. So everyone on that network has a copy of this ledger. Therefore, in order to make a change, you will have to share that block with the group and they will vote whether or not that change is valid. If the majority votes “NO” then that block will get rejected and you won’t be able to make any changes. This is called the Consensus Rule.

The Bottom Line

Blockchain may have recently seen a boom in popularity but it has been around for a while now, and that should offer proof that it is going to be around for longer. We have already seen a few large and medium sectors adopt this technology to better facilitate their businesses, it will be quite fascinating to see how blockchain will be used by the rest of the world in the coming decades. 

What are your thoughts on blockchain? Let us know in the comments below.

What’s up with Web 3.0?

There has been a buzz of a revolution going around the tech industry for quite some time now. It started a minute after the advent of the cryptocurrency and only recently has it started 

to gain traction in the lives of those out of the tech sphere as well. 

Yes, we’re talking about the development of Web 3.0. 

If you’re new to this piece of information and are confused as to why a new web is being invented then keep reading because today we’ll discuss why the Web 2.0 you and love may become a thing of the past and what we can expect from the new era of the internet.

Before we get ahead of ourselves though, let’s understand Web 1.0 and Web 2.0.

Web 1.0 (1989-2004)

Web 1.0

Let’s take a trip down memory lane, shall we? (although, considering how long the internet has been around, for most of you this will be more of a history lesson than a flashback).

Web 1.0 as the name suggests is the first variation of the internet. It was also the most basic version of the internet. The boon with Web 1.0 was the fact that it was open source, which we’ll circle back to in a minute.

Web 1.0 was like a newspaper. Except newspapers could have images. But like newspapers,  the communication here was one way. People could only view the content, but had no opportunity to interact with it. At best, they could click on hyperlinks and go to other pages, or submit forms and surveys.

And the primary contributors of content at Web 1.0 were coders since the only way to put up content was to learn technical skills like HTML and then publish. Consumers had to read whatever was presented to them as they couldn’t interact with the source in any way. Web 2.0 revolutionised that.

Web2.0 (2004-present)

Web 2.0

Web 2.0 – or the version that might soon go out of fashion –  is the version we all currently use and consume. Web 2.0 was revolutionary at the time because it made use of multimedia, like pictures, videos, text, etc. to make the user experience more dynamic.

Web 2.0 introduced the world to blogs, Wikis, video sharing platforms like Youtube, microblogging sites like Twitter, and finally the pinnacle of that decade – social networking sites like – you guessed it – Facebook.

The key difference between the first two versions of the web is that Web 2.0 relied on users creating, sharing and themselves consuming that content. It would fall upon the tech giants, like Facebook, Google and Amazon, to provide a platform to make that possible. And this trend has persisted to date. Even today, 85% of content created and shared online is made by the users of those platforms. For example, all the reels and video content on Instagram aren’t made by Instagram itself. We, the users, make those and we are also the people that consume all that content made.

Another great feature of Web 2.0 is the birth of search engines – where users could type in relevant keywords and search for their desired results on the Search Engine Results Page. The only issue – which still exists by the way – is that the results aren’t always accurate. For example, if I were to type “apple” into Google’s search bar, the SERP would show me results for Apple inc. the company and not apple the fruit. In order to get results for the fruit, you would have to type Apple the fruit. We have to be extremely specific about what we type into the search bar to get the desired results.

Web 2.0 had a lot of other innovations too under its belt. From software development to social media, Web 2.0 has been the backbone of plenty of innovations. Then why the sudden call for change? 

Why a web 3.0?

Why a web 3.0

The main reason people want a new internet is – ownership. 

In the current version that is Web 2.0, you must have noticed that there is a monopoly. The majority of the internet is owned by certain companies only. For example, Google controls 87% of the global search market. And Facebook recently reached 3.6 billion users. While this is an incredible feat for these individual companies, it is preventing other companies from thriving and it is stopping new start-ups from blooming. This is because all the new startups are forced to build their products on the monopolists’ platform, where the protocols are not defined in the beginning and they can change at any point, sometimes without reason. 

For example, you might remember a particular Instagram ad campaign from messaging app Signal that was meant to show the reality of how your information is sold to advertisers. The ad was filled with hyper-specific keywords that would be used to target certain groups of people. Well, that didn’t go over too well with Facebook. The campaign was blocked before it went live and Signal was banned from Facebook ads altogether. Businesses that try to get on these monopoly platforms often take this issue. They cannot afford to get out of the platform. And the platform rules change, sometimes without any transparency and at a great cost to the business owners.

But ownership is not the only reason for the need for Web 3.0. Another factor has been privacy.

Privacy. What privacy?

Web 3.0 and Data Privacy

Data privacy has become a huge issue in the last decade. The data we put out on the internet is not ours anymore. It is taken and sold to businesses. Usually, it is targeted advertising, which seems harmless by itself, but there are far more dangerous things that can be done with our data – that aren’t completely illegal.

Preferences of users are heavily used not to simply market things to them, but also to shape public opinion. A classic example of this was the US presidential elections scandal in which user data was used for micro-targeting to sway people’s votes. 

When other information, like users’ location, their health-related information and financial data get in the wrong hands, privacy and security become every individual’s concerns. Data and privacy has become such a big deal that Apple launched a new privacy feature with iOS 15.5 that masks their users’ IP address so that it can’t be linked with their activity on the web. This small feature alone is set to cost Facebook 10 Billion dollars in damages.  

Not just that. When we use Big Tech platforms, our data is continuously collected and stored in the company’s central storage systems. Since our data is now controlled by these companies, we have no way to secure our data. It can be hacked from these centralised systems at any point. And it has happened multiple times in the past as well.

Final Thoughts


So there you have it – all the reasons why people want to change the old ways and switch to Web 3.0. But this is easier said than done. 

Like any other technology, Web 3.0 faces its own set of challenges, and without the proper I.T infrastructure to back it, it might as well be a pipe dream. But hopefully, in trying to build a new internet, we’ll find a lot more advancements along the way. 

What are your thoughts on Web 3.0? Let us know in the comments below.

Proof that Cyber Security concerns Everyone.

Cyber crime to most people feels too trivial a problem to take seriously. They probably think that a few stolen numbers and passwords won’t affect them, believing that they have no important data that needs protection as such. On the other end of the spectrum, there are those who constantly fret over weak cyber security and will probably go out of their way to cover their laptop camera with tape, taking no chances when it comes to their data.

So which one are you? Someone who doesn’t really care what happens to their data or are you a Cyber Security aspirant – waiting to rid the world of cyber crime?

Well, whatever the case might be, we are here to give all you naysayers some incentive to take Cyber Security more seriously and for all you Cyber Security optimists, proof that you have been right to take Cyber crime seriously all along!

In this blog, we’re going to cover 2 prominent cases of serious cyber breaches that had unfathomable consequences for the people and companies involved.

the RAT at Marriot Hotels

One of the leading brands in the hospitality industry, Marriott faced a lot of challenges back in 2018 when they found out that one of their reservation systems had been compromised – the reservation system at their Starwood properties to be exact. 

A hack of a story ft. Marriot

A brief history of the Marriott – Starwood Merger

Starwood properties weren’t always a part of Marriott. Once an independent chain hosting a multitude of brands like St. Regis, Sheraton, Westin and W hotels, it was acquired by Marriott in 2016. But the issue predates this acquisition. 

Marriott revealed that the reservation system had actually been compromised sometime in 2014. Unbeknownst to either brand back then, the compromised reservation system was used even after the acquisition, since much of the IT infrastructure remained the same and had not been integrated into Marriott’s private reservation system (MARSHA).

So how was the breach detected?

Sometime in 2018, a security tool flagged an unusual database query and Accenture brought it to light. Accenture had been running IT and infosecurity for Starwood properties and continued to do so once Starwood became a part of Marriott hotels.

The query was made by a user with administrator privileges, but Accenture quickly realised that the query hadn’t actually come from that account and that the account had been hacked. After digging around for more information they found a RAT in the system (and no, we don’t mean an actual rat). They discovered a Remote Access Trojan (RAT) and Mimikatz, a dangerous malware that discovers passwords and user information. Paired together, it is theorised that these two malware tools could’ve given the hackers control of that account. 

The cyber threat effect affects us all inevitably.

The damage? The personal information of more than 500 million guests was potentially stolen, which included some really sensitive information like their credit card information and passport numbers, much to the dismay of their customers

 The only silver lining to the breach of data was that none of the data ever made it to the dark web, nor was it sold anywhere else. However, this news didn’t curb the panic that ensued, as millions of people started cancelling their cards and transferring their money to more secure accounts to ensure that they weren’t defrauded in the future. Which is why, even though the data wasn’t leaked anywhere, people were still affected by the news. This rings true for all cyber crime attacks, once your data has been made vulnerable, you will have to change all your details to safeguard yourself once more.

Yahoo! and its Cyber saga

Considering its large user base, Yahoo has fought multiple long and arduous battles against cyber-criminals over the last decade. 

 The timeline of these attacks would look something like this:

Critical Attacks Yahoo Has Encountered
  • 2012 

The first notable attack was a decade ago in 2012 when Yahoo Voices, formerly known as Associated Content, was hacked and 400,000 user accounts were compromised in the attack. 

So what made this hack possible? The problem occurred due to the weak security in the systems Yahoo acquired during the acquisition of Associated Content. As in the case of Marriott, these systems weren’t checked nor were they updated.

  • 2013

Less than a year after announcing the unfortunate hacking of Yahoo Voices, Yahoo Mail was targeted. Many customers came out with complaints, stating that their accounts had been hacked. The source? Phishing mails. Yahoo users were sent phishing emails that, once clicked on, gave the hackers complete access to their mail and subsequently, access to their calendar as well.

  • 2014

There was no rest for the wicked this year either. Yahoo made an announcement in the latter half of January that there was an attempted hack, where customer data – passwords and user ids – were made vulnerable. The hackers had allegedly tried to breach email accounts after getting a list of email addresses and passwords from a third-party server. Yahoo changed the passwords swiftly to put a stop to the attacks.

  • 2016

In the late September of 2016, Yahoo, once again, made a public announcement, stating that 500 Million accounts were hacked. This time around, encrypted and unencrypted, including passwords, answers to security questions, mail addresses, telephone numbers and dates of birth were hacked. Yahoo pointed fingers at alleged state-sponsored hackers and hailed them as the main culprits behind this hack. This claim was obviously disputed. Yahoo also claimed that the hack was carried out using forged cookies, which eliminated the need for passwords, to gain user access.

  • 2016 (Again)

Come December of 2016, a mere 3 months later, Yahoo made history by announcing the biggest data breach up till date. The hack occurred sometime in 2013 and was brought to light after an investigation by law enforcement that took place after a tip-off. 

What makes this hack historical? More than a billion accounts were reported to be hacked. Much like its precursor in September, the passwords, email addresses, encrypted and unencrypted data including security questions and their answers were hacked. The hack was also carried out using forged cookies to gain user access.

After this flood of cyber attacks over the last decade, Yahoo’s reputation has suffered irredeemably, not only because security wasn’t prioritised multiple times, but also because they failed to disclose these hacks earlier, making it look like a cover-up, which didn’t sit well with their loyal patrons. 

The Aftermath

The aftermath for both these cases was devastating to the companies involved. Marriott Hotels was fined more than 120 Million USD for violating the privacy of British citizens under the GDPR. Further, Marriott had to cover additional costs of the breach itself. Likewise, Yahoo had to pay over 50 Million in fines.

But it’s not just about monetary loss that they inevitably incurred. It’s more about their brand image that was damaged through the whole ordeal.

So assume this to be your sign to take Cyber threats more seriously. If this blog has inspired you to consider Cyber Security as a career, upGrad Campus has courses tailored specifically for you. Do check out the Certificate course in upGrad Campus and get to saving our data from these malicious attacks today!

Why Google Can Afford To Be Free.

What does your mind jump to when I mention the word Google?

It is an indisputable fact that the word ‘Google’ is synonymous with the word ‘search’ or ‘research’. It has become part of the norm to use these words interchangeably. In fact you would be surprised to know that ‘Google’ is officially classified as a verb!  

But enough with this lesson on millennial slang. The bit that interests us all is how, despite providing most of their products at no charge, does Google still manage to not only dominate the tech world, but also mint profits in the long run?

Today we’ll sift through the multiple avenues that Google, or rather Alphabet Inc, used and continues to use, to build its commendable stature as a tech giant. But first tell me, do you really believe Google is free?


We just click.

Advertising is Google’s primary source of income and about 80% of its total revenue – is brought in by Google Ads and AdSense.

It is impossible that you’ve not come across a Google ad at this point, since Google dominates the Search engine space by a margin of roughly 92%. Google ads are often displayed with the word “Ads” near the result shown on the Search Engine Results Page (SERP). Google earns a commission from the advertiser every time these ads are clicked on by users. The results are either displayed at the top of the page or on the sidebar in YouTube or on the SERP itself.

So what’s AdSense you ask?

Google Ads get displayed on the SERP whereas, in the case of Google AdSense, a webmaster can integrate these ads onto a site. Google’s crawler analyses the content on these sites and chooses sites with specific keywords that match with the webmasters site. The type and locations of the ads are customisable according to the webmaster. Every time the ads get clicked the site earns a part of the commission that Google makes.


Hop on to cloud Google.

The Google Cloud service is actually free for a limited amount of data (15GB), beyond which, users are charged a fee. Google Cloud pulled a whopping $19 Billion in 2021, roughly 7.5% of the total revenue. Their prices ultimately vary, according to the amount of space you take up on cloud.


Beyond 1s and 0s

Hardware is another important avenue for Google to increase their overall revenue, from Google Pixel, smartphones, laptops, tablets, Google Nest smart home products to gaming controllers to fitbits. Google has created an extensive catalogue of products, and with the launch of Pixel 6.0 and Pixel 6 pro, Google’s hardware alone was estimated to bring in 19.6 Billion dollars in 2021.


YouTube. 'Nough said.

This one is a no brainer really. Now once again a majority of YouTube content is free to watch for all, but the free version displays Ads, at the start of videos and on the side bar. So using Ads, once more, Google and the channel owner displaying the Ad earn a commission. 

YouTube Premium on the other hand, offers an Ad-free experience, eliminating the commission earned through Ads, but replacing it with the subscription fee that users have to pay on a monthly or yearly basis.This is a win-win for all parties involved since it keeps  the revenue flowing and improves customer experience simultaneously. 

YouTube has more under its belt though. YouTube TV, a fairly new venture, is another source via which Google or Alphabet inc. brings in revenue. YouTube TV, hosts live streaming services, on-demand videos and cloud-based DVR connected with more than 85 networks such as Fox, Big three broadcast networks, etc. It is however available only in the US for now.


Watch how this Plays out.

Google Play Store is an application distribution service, much like AppStore for Apple, which contains games as well as other service based apps. You can  buy a Play pass for $ 4.99 on a monthly basis or $29.99 for a year. This pass provides apps and games without Ads that oftentimes hinder customer experience. So the same as in the case of YouTube premium, they, better customer experience, while yielding an alternative source of profit simultaneously. Additionally, for developers, a fee of $25 dollars is charged, upon the launch of their first app.


What the future holds.

So far, Alphabet Inc. has expanded far beyond the realm of search engines, we can only predict this trend going forward too. With the talks of Google gaining foot in the automobile industry and already experimenting widely with AI, the future is definitely going to hold much more value for this Tech giant.

Rollercoasting as a Freelance Full Stack Developer in India

It’s a rush, isn’t it? Developing that gorgeous front-end interface. Writing clever queries to fetch you the right answers from the database. Or coding a back-end program that pretty much sings to your tunes.

Full stack development, on most days, can satisfy your soul. But opportunities around full stack development may not always feel as such. The competition is huge; the industry needs are diverse and you may have your own constraints when it comes to working in an organisation. 

So you may be thinking about starting on your own as a freelance full stack developer.

But before you take that leap, we have a few questions you should consider:

Who should freelance as a Full Stack Developer?

Who should freelance as a Full Stack Developer?

Freelancing is not everybody’s cup of tea. And for someone who has their first cup after 12:00 pm, freelancing may seem like a better option than working in a 9-to-6 shift. Even so, there are a few qualities a freelance developer must possess:

  • Technical skills: This one is a no-brainer. You cannot start working independently until you possess the necessary expertise. As a freelance full stack developer, you should have a decent grasp of HTML, CSS, JavaScript, front-end frameworks like React and Redux, back-end applications like MongoDB and MySQL.
  • Sticking to deadlines: This is Freelancing 101. Developers gain a bad reputation when they’re unable to stick to timelines. And managing timelines has a learning curve. Once you pick a few projects of your own, you will understand your own limitations and pace and will be able to accurately estimate timelines for a project.
  • Knowing what the market wants: Coding skills alone won’t cut it. You must have a clear idea of what the market is currently on the lookout for. Fortunately, this part isn’t hard. Simply browsing the freelance portals (listed further below) will give you a fair idea about what the market is looking for in terms of skills, domain trends and so forth.
  • An ability to market yourself: We cannot stress enough on the ability to market oneself. You should be able to convince clients exactly why you’re the right person for this project. Luckily, there are a great number of resources out there to help you come up with a good project pitch and communicate it effectively to a potential client. But remember — it can’t be all faff. It has to be backed by genuine work experience, the right credentials and the skills to see your project through.


How much can I make as a freelance full stack developer?

How much can I make as a freelance full stack developer?

We’re sure this must have been the first question on your mind. But we deliberately put it here — for you need to have the mindset and qualities needed in a freelance full stack developer. However, once you have those, you’re in for a fruitful journey.

In India, a freelance full stack developer can start from Rs. 4 lakhs per annum, with less than a year of experience. Since India is the land of start-ups and SMEs, there is a wide range of opportunities for freelance developers to pick up projects. Freelance full stack developers, on average, can earn around Rs. 5.3 lakhs and in a few years, can go on to earn Rs. 24 lakhs.

As a freelancer, a full stack developer has the freedom to work with clients outside India, who usually pay higher, even up to a few lakhs per month.

Can I become a freelance full stack developer without experience?

Can I become a freelance full stack developer without experience?

It’s not particularly hard today to start your career as a freelancer. And here is where your marketing skills come into place. Can you demonstrate to your clients that you have the necessary skillset to build something that makes them money? If so, the project is in the bag.

While most clients prefer their developers to have work experience, some are open to assessing you based on your skills and portfolio. Invest your resources in ensuring you have a body of work. Get a professional certificate course in Full Stack Development

Remember, the millions of pages of educational content that you have gone through will not hold a candle to the credibility that you gain with a professional certificate. So, go through a certification course that proves that you have the necessary skills and will help build your portfolio.

What should my portfolio contain?

What should my portfolio contain?

Having a good portfolio and proof of work is key to attracting clients. Even the most basic portfolio should contain these three projects to attract the big guns:

  1. CRUD Project: Start with a simple application with CRUD (Create/Read/Update/Delete) capabilities. This could be a weight tracker, a tic-tac-toe game or even a diary. CRUD forms the basis of most professional projects, and so, your portfolio should highlight this ability.
  2. E-commerce App: An e-commerce app can truly make your portfolio stand out. Today, practically every business is offering an e-commerce facility for their product or service, and will make you popular with these clients. Including such an app also showcases your understanding of product listings, SEO, analytics, payment systems, among others.
  3. API Project: An API lends the perfect opportunity for you to get creative. Not only are APIs fun, but they also show how well you can interact with other systems and bring to life the results you desire. You can have something basic like a weather widget or even a quirky one like the “What to do when you’re bored” app.

Pro tip: Make sure that you get a professional designer on board who ensures that these projects look good on your portfolio. It wouldn’t do to have a fully functioning application with a lousy, off-putting design.

Where can you get projects for Full Stack Development in India?

Where can you get projects for Full Stack Development in India?

There are several platforms that connect freelancers to potential clients. Upwork, Fiverr, Freelancer, People Per Hour, are a few, to begin with, and it’s a good idea to keep your portfolio ready in these places. You can also scour them for understanding the market needs and the typical project price. They are also a good place to network with people of other expertise, like designers, UI writers, etc. and collaborate on projects.

Further, you can check out sites like GitHub Jobs, Stack Overflow and Codementor that are specific communities for freelance developers. Not only can you find job opportunities here, but you can also get many of your queries clarified by knowledgeable developers. 

Unlike conventional jobs, freelancing as a developer is a marathon and not a race. It takes a while to find your groove. But once you do, the independence, the monetary rewards and the opportunities you get are quite rewarding.

5 reasons why coding will be India’s most in-demand skill in 2022

The IT industry has seen a lot of ups and downs in the past two decades. First, there was the boom, followed by a short-lived period of lull. With the norm of online shopping, content streaming and social media, it’s back on the rise again. 

Today, more than ever, coding skills are in high demand. So if you’re still uncertain about whether to pursue your passion in coding or not, here are a few pointers that should clarify your doubts:

  1. Pandemic has bumped up the demand for tech. 
Pandemic has bumped up the demand for tech.


The last two years have exposed the shortcomings in every industry – all because of the Coronavirus pandemic. Companies are increasingly recognising the benefit of automating manual processes, which means they need to rely on tech, and by extension, people with coding skills.

Even now, it’s hard to predict accurately what the next few years will look like. But one thing is for certain – tech is here to stay, and so are all the associated job opportunities. As people are getting accustomed to the new normal that the two years of the pandemic have brought on, companies are on a hiring spree to get the ball on tech rolling.

  1. Every industry today has a technological counterpart.
Every industry today has a technological counterpart.

That’s right. Finance now has an associated FinTech field. Education has a corresponding EdTech field; health has HealthTech, and the list continues. And they’re all industries in their own right.

What does this mean? Simply that your job opportunities are not limited to IT companies alone. If you have studied tech but are interested in the business or operational aspects, or vice versa, the right certification program can open several doors for you as a tech consultant in non-tech companies as well.

  1. Our need for cyber security has grown.
Our need for cyber security has grown.

As businesses are increasingly digitising and adopting various payment modes like UPI and digital wallets, monetary transactions have practically exploded all over the world. Brands today are using social media login to set up customer accounts. Further, every organisation today works on a network; and all of these touchpoints are vulnerable to cyber attacks.

In the light of these, data privacy, protection and information security are becoming areas of concern. The stakes have increased to not just safeguarding critical information, but also the company’s reputation.

Cyber security has, therefore, become one of the most in-demand roles in any organisation. And the primary skill that this expertise needs is coding.  

  1. The job landscape has changed dramatically.
The job landscape has changed dramatically.

According to LinkedIn’s Emerging Job Report, Data Science, AI, Full Stack Development and Cyber Security are among the top 10 contenders. Back-end Development made it to a close number 11. All these roles require employees to have knowledge of coding to varying degrees.

As practically every brand is offering its products and services by means of an app, Full Stack Development and Back-end Development have become quite popular, and cover various aspects of coding. Both Data Science and AI require other specialised skills, such as Machine Learning and Data Visualisation, along with knowledge of programming in Python. 

  1. Programming courses are available at all levels.
Programming courses are available at all levels.

That’s the beauty of coding. One can always start from the ground up and work their way to expertise. IT needs and subsequently, opportunities can range from simple website maintenance to developing complex architecture for business applications. For each of these needs, there are courses to help you bridge the gap.

Sure, you can always learn on your own through tutorials and books, but a Certification Program makes all the difference in helping you get specialised knowledge and opportunities in your area of expertise.

It’s unimaginable to think today of any field that doesn’t have any digital or technical presence. Driven by tech, our country has a myriad of opportunities for anyone who wants to pursue their dream job in IT. If you’re someone who is just starting off their IT career, we recommend you to check out our Certification Course on Essentials of Programming and build your skills in two of the top 4 programming languages of the world. 

Full Stack Development Courses, Fees, Admission, Institutes, Syllabus, Jobs And Skills 2021

Choosing Full stack development as a career in 2021 would be the best career decision you might make. This career is trending and has been predicted to be trending in the coming years as well. Full-stack development is a process that includes both the front and back ends of a website or application. The front-end part deals with the user interface and the back-end part deals with system synchronization. Full-stack developers are required in every organization who can work on both sections of web development. 

Full-stack developers are capable of handling every part of the web development process and therefore are in high demand across business organizations. To be a proficient full-stack developer, one must have considerable experience and profound knowledge of software development to contribute effectively to the overall quality of web application development. 

Full-stack developers must have strong skills and in-depth knowledge across online platforms and emerging technologies to be able to address all aspects of web development projects. 

Let’s discuss about full Stack Development Courses, Fees, Admission, Institutes, Syllabus, Jobs And Skills 2021.

Table of Contents

  • Full Stack Development Courses
  • Full Stack Developer Course with Placement Opportunities
  • Full Stack Developer Course Syllabus
  • Full Stack Developer Certification
  • Online Full Stack Development Courses
  •  Full Stack Developer Course Fee

 Full Stack Development Courses

Full-stack developers need to learn basic design and database management skills and must have knowledge of programming languages. Pursuing full-stack development courses help aspiring candidates to learn necessary skills and significantly increase their chances of building a good career in a reputed organization. 

There are a lot of resources available both online and offline to learn the full-stack web development process. They provide the opportunity to learn and stay updated about the latest technologies in web application development. 

Some full stack development courses and certifications are there to serve this purpose of learning and acquire the best skills as required. These courses are specifically designed to teach the most latest and emerging technologies, preferably through project-based learning. They are a proper blend of theory and practice sessions on how to design and develop websites including different web development aspects, debugging, and testing. These courses help to gather all the skills needed to become a full-stack web developer, be it front-end or back-end development.

 Full Stack Developer Course with Placement Opportunities

Full stack developer courses with placement opportunities aim at providing specific skills to aspiring candidates and help them get proper placements in the industry by showcasing their capability and potential. The courses focus on building the capability of students in designing and developing powerful modern web applications which are used extensively in the apps, websites, and systems that have day-to-day applications in businesses. 

The program imparts students some impressive skills and aptitude to handle dynamic situations in web applications. Many courses have placement enabling sessions that include soft skills development, mock interviews, profile enhancement, and interview preparations.

 Full Stack Developer Course Syllabus

The full stack developer course syllabus has been developed by experts who have worked in various projects across industries and have a clear vision of the knowledge and skill requirements of a full-stack developer. The courses are designed to develop the right kind of approach and mindset to successfully apply the skills in real-time situations. 

In general, the full stack developer course syllabus includes the following:

  • HTML, Advance html5 – the foundation of the web and is used widely to create web pages. 
  • CSS, CSS 3 – Along with HTML, it gives an idea about designing
  • BootStrap – Collection of codes written in high-level programming languages
  • Javascript – A language that is used for front-end as well as back-end scripting effectively
  • Node JS – Popular back-end programming language with faster and reliable applications  
  • Python – High-level programming language 
  • Django – Framework for development of websites

Full Stack Developer Certification

The full stack developer certification program will provide all the key skills and technical know-how to start a career as a full stack developer. The program comes with access to classroom training, practice assessments, hands-on projects, and interaction with industry experts. 

This program structure offers ample knowledge as well as hands-on training through projects. You will get to learn the application of the latest tools and technologies that full stack developers need to use in building and managing various front-end and back-end applications. The courses in this program will help to develop a variety of skill sets in areas like HTML, CSS, JavaScript, Python programming, Databases, SQL, Django, Bootstrap, and more. After completing all the courses in the certificate program one will become an expert in handling various popular technologies and using programming languages in full stack application development.

Online Full Stack Development Courses

There are various full stack developer courses online which are quite popular among the freshers, as well as working professionals. It is suitable for those who are willing to build careers as full stack developers and also looking to expand their skills in web development. 

Some of the full stack developer online courses are as given below: 

  • The complete web development Bootcamp: It is one of the best full stack developer courses that equip you with knowledge of front-end technologies. It helps to create animated applications and responsive landing pages.
  • Full Stack Web Developer Course: It is one of the most preferred courses that help to develop the basic skills needed to build web applications. This program will provide good knowledge on designing and building databases for software applications.
  • Full Stack Javascript Development:  An online course that teaches how to create data-driven websites faster and more efficiently. 
  • Full-Stack Web Development with Angular Specialization: It is a course from Coursera that provides learning on front-end website development with server-side support.
  • Learn to Code:  It is a course from Udacity that gives a basic understanding of the basics of programming using HTML, CSS, and Python. It will help you develop enough knowledge to think and get a logical solution.
  • Web Development Course: It is an online course from codeacademy that will teach how to handle both the front end and back end conveniently. This study site helps to gather adequate knowledge about HTML, JavaScript, and CSS programming required to build a web application.

 Full Stack Developer Course Fee

Complete full stack developer course fee varies from INR 30.000 to INR 50,000. However, there are options to opt for specific modules as a part of the complete program. The course fee depends on the type of expertise required by the candidates and the fees vary from INR 2500 to INR 5000 for basic and specialized learning programs respectively.

Full stack web developers are in great demand in the industry as there is still a shortage of experts in this field as compared to the huge variety of web applications running across organizations. Companies are searching for professionals who can manage both the backend and front end, so there are great opportunities if you take your career to the next level by pursuing the course.

How to become a full stack developer?

Full Stack Development – This might sound a bit overwhelming but it’s not. If you would have searched for this term recently – you must have read the terms like HTML, CSS, PHP and MySQL. Full Stack Developers are jack of all trades of the industry where comprehensive programming knowledge is demanded. 

A full-stack developer is a software expert who is qualified and skilled to work on both the front end (which users see) and back end (behind the applications) of websites and mobile applications. The front-end refers to the visible part of the application with which users interact (user interface) and the back-end is where all the actual functioning of the system happens. The combination of front-end and back-end is called the Full Stack. This means full stack developers can be considered as software experts who are equally proficient in front-end (client-side) as well as back-end (server-side) development for online applications. Full Stack Developers have strong skill sets and knowledge bases in the IT domain. They are highly valued by both large companies and small startups.

 Let’s explore more about how to become a full stack developer?

To become a full-stack developer, one has to be familiar with two basic web development concepts. The front-end, also known as the client-side, refers to all the elements of an online application that users directly interact with. Whereas the back-end comprises the entire programming and structure that can compute and analyze data, fulfill user response, and handle real-time information. 

Full-stack developers are expected to be multi-taskers in the sense that they are professionals capable of addressing both the front-end and back-end of web applications. As a part of front-end development, they optimize the visible parts to design a user-friendly and engaging site. On the other hand, in the back-end, they build the structure of internal software that handles databases, servers, and specific software. Full-stack developers make the front-end of applications visually appealing and easily accessible by users, while continuously working on the server-side of the application and exchanging information between the browser and back-end databases to refine and update for better performance. A person who is a full-stack developer is responsible for the development and functioning of a site or application’s front-end and back-end architecture.

Full-stack developers need to have special technical knowledge for combining various components into a packaged application that goes into the making of a software product. They know the functionality of each tool and can manipulate the back-end components accordingly to produce desired results at the front-end. Full-stack developers contribute to the overall quality of the software application and are therefore considered as unparalleled assets in a technical team. The full stack developer job description in an organization generally includes:

  • Working with a website design from start to completion
  • Developing and updating features of websites along with user interface teams
  • Designing better user interactions through robust front-end architecture
  • Managing database, server administration, and Application Programming Interface
  • Communicating with end-users to evaluate product responsiveness

Some key technical responsibilities for an entry-level to experienced full stack developer include studying project requirements and creating solutions by working on databases and servers and using the methodical testing process to debug and modify codes for problem-solving.

Full Stack Development Courses

Full-stack developers need to learn basic design and database management skills and must have knowledge of programming languages. Many full-stack web development courses help aspiring candidates to learn necessary skills and significantly increase their chances of getting hired by a reputed company. Four-year degree programs have proved to be one of the most beneficial paths for aspiring developers. These courses provide comprehensive knowledge and a broad view that enhances the competency of professionals. Additionally, it allows building an impressive portfolio, receiving internships, and improving valuable connections. There are a lot of online courses to provide knowledge about the latest in web application development and keep them updated. These online courses offer classes, tutorials and certifications as per the requirement of working professionals. The courses focus on teaching the most updated technologies through project-based learning.

Knowledge of Web Architecture

Full Stack Developers must have a thorough knowledge of web architecture. Their primary responsibility is to work with software applications from scratch and develop them into a structured form. For this, they need to know how to structure the code, categorize the data in databases, and perform the necessary computational tasks. The web application architecture is a highly responsive medium that facilitates communication between different users and technical interaction between different systems. The full-stack developers apply knowledge of web architecture to design software modules as well as promotion and commercialization of the web application. 

Salary of a Full Stack Developer 

In recent years, the role of the full-stack developer has become significantly important. Employers understand the benefits of having a full stack developer in their team who has an effective contribution to a project for successful implementation. Because of the demand, the full stack developer salary in India is quite high. Full-stack developers in India earn an average salary of around INR 6 lakhs per annum. At the entry-level, the salary starts with around INR 3.75 lakhs per annum. An employee with mid-level experience can secure a yearly package of about INR 5-8 lakhs. Some of the renowned IT firms and MNCs in India offer a yearly package to deserving candidates which are as follows: 

  • Tata Consultancy Services: INR 4.50 lakhs
  • IBM: INR 6.50 lakhs
  • Accenture: INR 5.30 Lakhs
  • Wipro: INR 4.20 Lakhs
  • Infosys: INR 3.35 Lakhs
  • Cognizant Technology Solutions: INR 6.25 Lakhs 
  • GALE partners: INR 8.25 Lakhs